Dementia isn't a single disease; it’s an overall term — like cardiovascular disease — that covers a large range of specific medical conditions, as well as Alzheimer’s disease. Disorders classified below the general term “dementia” are caused by abnormal brain changes. These changes trigger a decline in thinking skills, also referred to as cognitive abilities, severe enough to impair everyday life and independent operate. They also have an effect on behavior, feelings and relationships. and Memory loss is a distressing part of dementia, both for the person with the condition and for the people around them.
Neuromuscular disorders have an impact on the nerves that manage voluntary muscles and conjointly the nerves that communicate sensory details back to the brain. Nerve cells (neurons) send and receive electrical messages to and from the body to assist manage voluntary muscles. once the neurons become unhealthy or die, communication between the nervous system and muscles breaks down.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition that affect the brain and spinal cord, inflicting a large range of potential symptoms, together with problems with vision, arm or leg movement, sensation or balance. It's a lifetime condition that may generally cause serious disability, though it will often be mild. In several cases, it's possible to treat symptoms. Average lifetime is slightly reduced for individuals with MS. It's most typically diagnosed in individuals in their 20s and 30s, though it will develop at any age. It's regarding two to three times more common in girls than men. MS is one of the foremost common causes of disability in younger adults.
Depression (main depressive disorder) is a communal and severe medical illness that harmfully affects how you feel the way you think and how you act. Fortuitously, it is also remediable. Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in deeds once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s capability to function at work and at home.
Anxiety is your body's natural response to stress. It's a sense of fear or apprehension about what's to come. The 1st day of school, while going to a job interview, or giving a speech may cause most people to feel fearful and nervous
Neuroimaging is also known as brain imaging which use various techniques directly or indirectly to image the structure, function, pharmacology of the nervous system. It is a new specialty within medicine, neuroscience, and psychology. Physicians who specialized in neuroimaging are referred as neuroradiologists.
Neuroimaging divides in 2 broad categories:
There are different types of Neuroimaging techniques are:
Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary scientific network with emphasis on decoding the molecular, cellular and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders.
The following key research areas are:
Neurological disorders are disease occurs to peripheral and central nervous system. In additionally, they are disorder/disease of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuro-muscular junction, and muscles. These also have an impact on the nerves that manage voluntary muscles and conjointly the nerves that communicate sensory details back to the brain. Nerve cells (neurons) send and receive electrical messages to and from the body to assist manage voluntary muscles. once the neurons become unhealthy or die, communication between the nervous system and muscles breaks down.
Cognitive is a scientific field that is concerned with study of the biological processes and aspects that trigger cognition, with a specific focus on the Neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes. Cognitive Neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science attached with evidence from Neurobiology, and Computational Modeling. Behavioural Neuroscience is the study of Neurology that is concerned with Neurological diseases based on behaviour, cognition, memory and treatment. This disease occurs mainly because of brain damage or Mental health disorder. This disorder can alter the remembrance power and thinking ability.
The spine consists of 26 bones referred to as vertebrae, that protects and support the spinal cord and nerves. The number of conditions and injuries that affect the spine, which can damage the vertebrae, cause pain, & limit mobility. Spinal fusion is a surgery that joins two or more vertebrae into one single structure.The goal is to prevent movement between the two bones and control back pain. Once they’re joined, they no longer move like they used to. This keeps you from stretching the nearby nerves, ligaments, and muscles that may cause discomfort.Numerous conditions that can affect the spine anywhere from the neck to the lower back.
Some of the many spine disorders which can be treated are:
Psychiatry is involving the study, diagnosis and treatment of mental health. In its current attempts it defines, understand, and categorize mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, and provides simple treatments, Psychiatry is a medical specialty which usually up against the deep complexity of the human brain. A person's mental health is influenced by a combination of an individual as well as their interactions with society, community, and family.
Psychiatric Disorder is a mental disorder that disturbs your thinking, moods, behavior and will increase your risk of disability, pain, death, or loss of freedom which can be treated by a Psychiatry professional. There are several components to mental well-being including a healthy self-esteem, communication skills and the development of resilience.
Developmental Medicine is a division which assess and cares for children with medical condition related to the development of the nervous system that includes brain. It works on improving the lives of infants, children, and adolescents who have developmental and behavioral problems. It specializes in the care of children with special needs, and tailor our services to the individual child and family.
Child Neurology is also known as Pediatric Neurology is medical specialty that includes the treatment of neurological conditions in infants, children, and adolescents. Neurology in kids is of three essential sorts in whom two are Ischemic Neurology in which blockage of veins outcome in absence of blood stream and harm. At some point when a corridor is blocked, the term blood vessel Ischemic Neurology (AIS) is used. Most known side effects of neurology incorporate the sudden appearance of failing or deadness of the face, arm or leg, more often than not on one side of the body.
This can see in children with many conditions, including:
Part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord that is referred as central because it combines info from the whole body and coordinated activity over the whole organism. central nervous system disorders will have an effect on either brain or spinal cord that conclusion in psychiatric disorders or neurologic disorders. The causes of central nervous system diseases embrace Neurology, Trauma, autoimmune disorders, infections, structural defects and Tumors.
The annual market was valued at USD 28.42 billion in 2016 and is predicted to grow at a CAGR of 3.1% over the forecast amount. Yearly 6.8 million folks have become extinct everywhere the globe thanks to medicine disorders. In Europe nearly 38th of total population is affected by a neurological disorder and in us Stroke is third leading reason for death.
Sleep and mental disorders generally occur at a similar time, and untreated sleep disorders will increase the chance of developing psychiatric conditions, like depression, later in life. Recent reports found that as several as simple fractions of patients called to sleep disorders centers have a psychiatric disorder. the foremost common mental disorders related to sleep complaints embrace depression, anxiety, and substance (illicit medication and alcohol) abuse.
Treating sleep disorders has been shown to improve the co-existing psychiatric condition and overall quality of life. However, these substances aren't effective within the long run and may cause a range of serious health and performance issues, together with psychiatric and medical disorders, and psychosocial issues like impaired performance in class or work.
Seizure disorder is a general term used to describe any condition wherever seizures are a symptom. Seizures are characterized by abnormal electrical activity within the brain that affects physical and mental functioning. There are 2 main kinds of seizures: generalized and partial. Generalized seizures involve the whole brain, whereas partial or focal seizures begin in one area of the brain.
Epilepsy is outlined as a group of related disorders characterized by a tendency to suffer repeated seizures. Seizures will occur at any time, and sometimes all at once. In most people, seizures are often controlled with treatment and will go away entirely, in others, seizures continue despite treatment and may last a lifetime.
Traumatic brain injury, also referred to as TBI, is a complicated injury that occurs from a sudden trauma that causes injury to the brain. TBI may result when your head suddenly hits an object or if an object pierces the skull. These injuries generally occur from falls, traffic accidents, interpersonal violence, or participation in sports. TBI is manifested by either loss of consciousness, alteration of consciousness or mental status, or focal neurological deficits, which can come and go. TBI is a leading reason behind morbidity and mortality worldwide. It remains the leading cause of death and disability among teenagers in developed countries.
Movement disorders are neurological conditions that cause issues with movement, such as:
Some common types of disorders include:
Autism is also called as Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Indicates to a wide range of illnesses characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication. Coming up to the Centers for Disease Control, autism affects an expected 1 in 59 children in the United States today. Prenatal viral infection has been known as the principal non-genetic cause of autism. Prenatal coverage to rubella or cytomegalovirus initiates the mother's immune response and may greatly increase the risk for autism in mice. Congenital rubella syndrome is the greatest convincing environmental cause of autism.
These are some of the characteristics of ASD:
Stroke is one in every of the largest causes of incapacity worldwide, nevertheless its neurological burden has been under-recognized as a result of it's been classified by the WHO as However, with the discharge of the newest revision of the WHO International Classification of disease (ICD-11), stroke has been reclassified as a neurological disease. vascular neurology is that the specialized treatment of strokes and stroke risk factors. you'll have to be compelled to see a vascular neurologist throughout or when a stroke, or if you're in danger of getting a stroke. A stroke is characterized by symptoms like weakness, numbness, vision changes and speech disturbance. The Division of vascular Neurology evaluates, treats and studies diseases that have an effect on the structure and performance of the blood vessels supply the brain. Our main purpose is to supply the simplest attainable look after our patients with stroke cerebrovascular disease.
Neurocritical care is the intensive care management of patients with grave neurological and neurosurgical illnesses like massive stroke, bleeding in or round the brain (subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage), brain tumors, brain trauma, epilepsy, nerve and muscle diseases (myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barre Syndrome), spinal cord disorders and therefore the cardiopulmonary complications of brain injury. Neurocritical care provides the interface between the brain and different organ systems in the setting of critical ill health. Patients are taken care of at within single specialized unit. Neurocritical care units focus on managing the unique wants of such critically ill patients.
Neurorehabilitation is treatment for neurological disorders was considered as neurological physical therapy. This treatment involved exercises to correct muscle dysfunction. because the field of neurological therapy evolved, numerous treatment modalities were added and research examining the advantages of neurorehabilitation following nervous system injury began to emerge. neurological rehab will usually improve function, reduce symptoms, and improve the well-being of the patient.
Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, several of that terribly dangerous and grave (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the numerous examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and extremely anaplastic astrocytoma are among the worst.
Primary tumors of the CNS: Primary tumors of the CNS can occur at any age, from infancy to late in life. These tumors usually afflict individuals throughout their prime years. Factors like age, tumor location, and clinical presentation are helpful in differential diagnosis. Most types of primary tumors are a lot of common in men with the exception of meningiomas and a lot of common in women.
Metastatic tumors of the CNS: Cancer that spreads tumor to the nervous system by direct invasion, compression, or metastasis. Direct invasion or compression from continuous tissues relates to the proximity of the nervous system to different structures, such as the plexus brachialis, lumbosacral plexus, vertebral neuroforamina, base of skull, cranium, and pelvic bones.
Neuro-ophthalmology, a subspecialty of both neurology and ophthalmology, is that the treatment of visual problems that are related to the nervous system; that's, visual problems that do not come from the eyes themselves. we have a tendency to use virtually half of the brain for vision-related activities. Neuro-ophthalmologists undergo specialized training and experience in problems of the eye, brain, nerves and muscles. Neuro-ophthalmologists have distinctive abilities to evaluate patients from the neurologic, ophthalmologic, and medical standpoints to diagnose and treat a large variety of problems. though some problems seen by neuro-ophthalmologists aren't worrisome, alternative conditions can worsen and cause permanent visual loss, or become life threatening.
Neurogenetics is the center of some of the most exciting translational clinical and basic research in neurology and human genetics. Many of the fundamental processes underlying neurological disorder stay elusive and/or poorly understood. Genetics and proteomics (the study of proteins produced by genes) will increase our understanding of predisposition to diseases therefore we can develop the next wave of therapies to treat neurological disorder.
Advances in genomics and technologies provide opportunities to better delineate neurological syndromes, understand neurological disease progression, and refine clinical treatments. As genetic understanding and applications for the treatment of neurological disease increase, another problem emerges: training the clinical neurologists to apply genetic analysis and the use of genomics.
Neurophysiology provides insight nervous system that how it works and the way its dysfunction can results in disease. Neurophysiology is the study of organisms and their parts function. Neurophysiology is the study of the functioning of the nervous system, that includes the brain, the spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and sensory organs. The specialists study the CNS and peripheral nerves at the level of organs, cellular networks, individual cells.
A unique feature of this wide discipline is an interest in the mechanisms that relate to the generation and propagation of electrical impulses inside the neurons. Neurophysiology is an important subject not only for understanding of the processes of human thought, but also for ability to diagnose and treated these disorders related to nervous system.
This deals with toxicity of Central Nervous System (CNS), affecting the brain and destructs the Nerve tissues. Cases of this substances include Conotoxin, Chlorotoxin, Tetrodotoxin, causes neuro-toxicity & directly affecting the brain and related functions. Neurotoxicity may also occur due to some drug therapies, organ transplant or exposures to significant metal. Many billions of dollars spend each year voluntarily for purchasing chemicals like caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine to influence the nervous system.