Dementia isn't a single disease; it’s an overall term — like cardiovascular disease — that covers a large range of specific medical conditions, as well as Alzheimer’s disease. Disorders classified below the general term “dementia” are caused by abnormal brain changes. These changes trigger a decline in thinking skills, also referred to as cognitive abilities, severe enough to impair everyday life and independent operate. They also have an effect on behavior, feelings and relationships. and Memory loss is a distressing part of dementia, both for the person with the condition and for the people around them.

Alzheimer's Disease
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD)
Vascular Dementia

Neuromuscular disorders have an impact on the nerves that manage voluntary muscles and conjointly the nerves that communicate sensory details back to the brain. Nerve cells (neurons) send and receive electrical messages to and from the body to assist manage voluntary muscles. once the neurons become unhealthy or die, communication between the nervous system and muscles breaks down.

Lambert-Eaton Syndrome
Guillain-Barré Syndrome (Gbs)
Myasthenia Gravis (Mg)
Muscular Dystrophies
Peripheral Neuropathies
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (Cmt) Disease
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis or Lou Gehrig's Disease
Brain cancers happen when one type of cell transforms from its general characteristics. Once it gets transmuted, the cells grow and multiply in abnormal ways forming a cancerous growth of cell mass. The early symptoms includes severe headaches and drowsiness early in the morning, sudden convulsions with involuntary movements of a person's muscles, personality or memory changes, fatigue, nausea or vomiting and sleep problems. The main causes for most brain cancer are unknown. Quiet genetic factors, strong dose of radiation to the head, environmental toxins and consumption of tobacco all of these have been linked to brain cancer.
Parkinson's disease is an advanced nervous system disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start slowly, sometimes starting with a hardly noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also usually causes stiffness or slowing of movement. Parkinson's disease signs and symptoms can be unlike for everyone. Symptoms frequently begin on one side of your body and usually remain worse on that side, even after symptoms begin to affect both sides. Different people experience progress at different speeds, as well. Still, physicians have established stages that define how the disease progresses. These five stages of Parkinson's are known as the Hoehn and Yahr Scale used by physicians during the world to classify patients in research studies.
Neuro-immunology is a field of science which relates to neuroscience, the study of the nervous system is immunology, the study of the immune system together. “Despite the brain's status as an immune privileged site, a wide bi-directional communication takes place between the nervous and the immune system in both health and disease.”- US National Institute of Health. The aim of this season is to know more about Neuro-immunology and understanding the pathology of certain neurological diseases and for further developments in this research area.
Cognitive neuroscience is the field of study focusing on the neural substrates of mental processes. It is at the intersection of psychology and neuroscience, but also overlaps with physiological psychology, cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. It combines the theories of cognitive psychology and computational modeling with experimental data about the brain.
The brain stem connects the brain along with the spinal cord. It controls hunger and thirst and some of the most important body functions, those are the body temperature, blood pressure, and breathing. The brain and spinal cord are called as the central nervous system (CNS). The brain is the command midpoint for your body, and the spinal cord is the pathway for information sent by the brain to the body and from the body to the brain. Meninges are membranes that protect the brain and spinal cord. There are three layers of meninges: Dura mater (closest to the bone), Arachnoid loosely around the brain, Pia mater is closely attached to the brain and spinal cord surface. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) cushions the brain and spinal cord.
In humans, the life span of term birth to 2 years of age is characterized by rapid and dynamic brain development and plays a major role in cognitive development and risk of disorders. Enhancement in imaging studies have begun to indicate the growth trajectories of brain structure and function in the initial years after birth and their relationship to cognition and danger of neuropsychiatric disorders. The structural connectivity indicates anatomical connections linking a set of neural elements whereas functional connectivity is generally derived from time series observations, and describes patterns of statistical dependence along neural elements.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition that affect the brain and spinal cord, inflicting a large range of potential symptoms, together with problems with vision, arm or leg movement, sensation or balance. It's a lifetime condition that may generally cause serious disability, though it will often be mild. In several cases, it's possible to treat symptoms. Average lifetime is slightly reduced for individuals with MS. It's most typically diagnosed in individuals in their 20s and 30s, though it will develop at any age. It's regarding two to three times more common in girls than men. MS is one of the foremost common causes of disability in younger adults.

Neuro-degeneration is the procedure by which a part of your brain dies as a result of trauma or disease. Aging is the overpowering risk factor for developing any of a number of phenotypically separate neurodegenerative diseases, and the enhancing prevalence, along with human life span, represents a major scientific challenge for the biomedical research community and a rising public health problem. Neurodegenerative diseases is one of the major problems in human health. These age-dependent disorders are increasing nowadays, because the elderly population has been increased in recent years. Neurodegeneration is a feature of many debilitating, incurable diseases that are rapidly increasing in such prevalence, as Parkinson's disease. In the United States, about 60,000 cases of Parkinson's disease are diagnosed per year.
Psychosomatic medicine contributes interdisciplinary evaluation and management in medical field exploring the relationships along social, psychological, and behavioral factors on bodily processes and superiority of life in humans and animals. A Psychosomatic Medicine is a subspecialty of psychiatry which is mostly used in diagnosis and treatment of psychiatry disorders and also symptoms in chronic medically suffering ill patients. Clinical conditions where mental methods act as major role affecting medical outcomes are areas where psychosomatic medicine has competence.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a pure, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid has three main functions: It protects brain and spinal cord from trauma, deliveries nutrients to nervous system tissue, removes waste products from cerebral metabolism. CSF leaks occur through a communication between the facing of the brain and the nose. These communications may occur spontaneously or result from trauma or earlier sinonasal surgery. Complications may occur if the cause is surgery or trauma. Infections after surgery or trauma can lead to meningitis and serious complications, such as swelling of the brain. Maximum CSF leaks are a complication of a spinal tap or surgery.

Depression (main depressive disorder) is a communal and severe medical illness that harmfully affects how you feel the way you think and how you act. Fortuitously, it is also remediable. Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in deeds once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s capability to function at work and at home.

Depression symptoms:

  • Sensation of sad or having a depressed mood
  • Loss of interest or desire in activities once enjoyed
  • Changes in appetite — weight loss or gain unconnected to dieting
  • Trouble sleeping or sleeping excessively
  • Loss of energy or increased tiredness Feeling worthless or guilty
  • Struggle with thinking, concentrating or making decisions
  • Feelings of death or suicide
Maximum number of people will think of neurosurgery as brain surgery — but it is much more! It is the medical specialty worried with the diagnosis and treatment of patients with injury to, or diseases/disorders of the brain, spinal cord and spinal column, and peripheral nerves within total parts of the body. The specialty of neurosurgical care includes both geriatric and pediatric patients. Depend upon the nature of the injury or disease a neurological surgeon may provide surgical and/or non-surgical care.
Brain Nursing is the guard, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of pain through the diagnosis and treatment of human responses, and encouragement in health care for individuals, families, communities, and populations. The aim of this session is to know nursing activities that have the potential to maximize outcomes for severe brain disorders.
Pediatric neurology or child neurology refers to a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of neurological conditions in neonates (newborns), infants, children and adolescents. The discipline of child neurology encompasses diseases and disorders of the spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, muscles and blood vessels that affect individuals in these age groups.
Neuropharmacology is the division of pharmacology which deals with the action of drugs in the nervous system. Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Molecular neuropharmacology are the subdivisions of neuropharmacology. Behavioral neuropharmacology is the study about how drugs affect human behavior (neuropsychopharmacology), and addiction affect human brain. Behavioral and Molecular fields are very carefully connected, since both are concerned with the interactions. In neuropharmacology we also know about the drugs and their targets that influence the functions of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) in health and disease.
Animal models plays major role for our understanding of the details of brain development. This session will analysis the history of animal models and the emergence of many useful models for developmental studies today. Comparative anatomical reports start with Aristotle and his dissections of various animals, but it was not until the 19th century that the use of postmortem and alive animal models became common.
Computational systems are useful in neuroscience in so many ways. For example, they may be used to construct maps of brain structure and activation or to describe brain processes mathematically. The nervous system is the net of nerve cells and fibers which transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body. Brain Engineering is about using scientific methods to understand and typical the nervous system and to use this knowledge to engineer systems that cooperate with augment or mimic nervous system functionality.
Drug addiction is a brain disease that is categorized by compulsive drug seeking, despite of its harmful consequences. It causes changes in the normal activity of the nervous system damaging the nerve tissues, killing neurons and it leads to deregulation of neural system. Thus uncontrolled drug use results in toxicity of brain. Some of the behavioral effects of drug addiction include Paranoia, Aggressiveness, Impulsiveness, and Loss of Self-Control. Prescription drugs that are frequently abused are sleep medicines and opioids. In reality, drug addiction is a multifaceted disease, and quitting usually takes more than good intentions or a strong will. Drugs change the brain in ways that make quitting hard, even for those who want to. Luckily, researchers know more than ever about how drugs affect the brain and have found actions that can help people recover from drug addiction and lead productive lives.

Anxiety is your body's natural response to stress. It's a sense of fear or apprehension about what's to come. The 1st day of school, while going to a job interview, or giving a speech may cause most people to feel fearful and nervous

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  • Panic Disorder.
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Schizophrenia
  • Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Social Phobia (or Social Anxiety Disorder)
  • Specific phobias
  • Panic disorder

Neuroimaging is also known as brain imaging which use various techniques directly or indirectly to image the structure, function, pharmacology of the nervous system. It is a new specialty within medicine, neuroscience, and psychology. Physicians who specialized in neuroimaging are referred as neuroradiologists.

Neuroimaging divides in 2 broad categories:

  1. Structural imaging: the structure of the nervous system and the diagnosis of large-scale intracranial disease and injury.
  2. Functional imaging: The diagnose metabolic diseases and lesions on a finer scale of Alzheimer's disease and also for neurological and cognitive psychology research and building brain-computer interfaces.

There are different types of Neuroimaging techniques are:

Computed axial tomography
Diffuse optical imaging
Event-related optical signal
Magnetic resonance imaging
Cranial ultrasound
Diagnostic tests and processes are vital tools that help physicians confirm or rule out the presence of a neurological disorder or other medical condition. Tests and techniques such as Chorionic villus sampling, Pre-symptomatic testing, Biomarkers, Molecular diagnostics, Neuroimaging and Human Neuroimaging are usually used to diagnose.
The main aim of this session is to understand the Novel Treatment strategies like Neurocircuitry of Inspiration, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Research, Anti-amyloid therapy, Real-world Valuation, Prediction, and Treatment, Molecular Neuropsychiatry and Future research instructions in brain disorders.

Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary scientific network with emphasis on decoding the molecular, cellular and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders.

The following key research areas are:

Molecular Neurobiology
Behavioral and Molecular Neuroendocrinology
Functional Magnetic Resonance Tomography

Neurological disorders are disease occurs to peripheral and central nervous system. In additionally, they are disorder/disease of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuro-muscular junction, and muscles. These also have an impact on the nerves that manage voluntary muscles and conjointly the nerves that communicate sensory details back to the brain. Nerve cells (neurons) send and receive electrical messages to and from the body to assist manage voluntary muscles. once the neurons become unhealthy or die, communication between the nervous system and muscles breaks down.

Brain Tumor
Headaches and Migraine
Pain Disorders
Pituitary Conditions
Parkinson's Disease

Cognitive is a scientific field that is concerned with study of the biological processes and aspects that trigger cognition, with a specific focus on the Neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes. Cognitive Neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science attached with evidence from Neurobiology, and Computational Modeling. Behavioural Neuroscience is the study of Neurology that is concerned with Neurological diseases based on behaviour, cognition, memory and treatment. This disease occurs mainly because of brain damage or Mental health disorder. This disorder can alter the remembrance power and thinking ability.

The spine consists of 26 bones referred to as vertebrae, that protects and support the spinal cord and nerves. The number of conditions and injuries that affect the spine, which can damage the vertebrae, cause pain, & limit mobility. Spinal fusion is a surgery that joins two or more vertebrae into one single structure.The goal is to prevent movement between the two bones and control back pain. Once they’re joined, they no longer move like they used to. This keeps you from stretching the nearby nerves, ligaments, and muscles that may cause discomfort.Numerous conditions that can affect the spine anywhere from the neck to the lower back.

Some of the many spine disorders which can be treated are:

Degenerative Disc Disease
Herniated Disc
Spinal Stenosis

Psychiatry is involving the study, diagnosis and treatment of mental health. In its current attempts it defines, understand, and categorize mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, and provides simple treatments, Psychiatry is a medical specialty which usually up against the deep complexity of the human brain. A person's mental health is influenced by a combination of an individual as well as their interactions with society, community, and family.

Psychiatric Disorder is a mental disorder that disturbs your thinking, moods, behavior and will increase your risk of disability, pain, death, or loss of freedom which can be treated by a Psychiatry professional. There are several components to mental well-being including a healthy self-esteem, communication skills and the development of resilience.

Addiction psychiatry
Brain Injury Medicine
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Clinical Neurophysiology
Forensic Psychiatry
Geriatric Psychiatry
Hospice and Palliative Medicine
Pain medicine
Psychosomatic medicine
Sleep medicine

Developmental Medicine is a division which assess and cares for children with medical condition related to the development of the nervous system that includes brain. It works on improving the lives of infants, children, and adolescents who have developmental and behavioral problems. It specializes in the care of children with special needs, and tailor our services to the individual child and family.

Child Neurology is also known as Pediatric Neurology is medical specialty that includes the treatment of neurological conditions in infants, children, and adolescents. Neurology in kids is of three essential sorts in whom two are Ischemic Neurology in which blockage of veins outcome in absence of blood stream and harm. At some point when a corridor is blocked, the term blood vessel Ischemic Neurology (AIS) is used. Most known side effects of neurology incorporate the sudden appearance of failing or deadness of the face, arm or leg, more often than not on one side of the body.

This can see in children with many conditions, including:

Autism spectrum disorders
Child Development
Brain and nervous system problems
Cerebral palsy (CP)
Premature Birth
Tourette Syndrome (TS)
Genetic diseases of the nervous system
Intellectual disability

Part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord that is referred as central because it combines info from the whole body and coordinated activity over the whole organism. central nervous system disorders will have an effect on either brain or spinal cord that conclusion in psychiatric disorders or neurologic disorders. The causes of central nervous system diseases embrace Neurology, Trauma, autoimmune disorders, infections, structural defects and Tumors.

The annual market was valued at USD 28.42 billion in 2016 and is predicted to grow at a CAGR of 3.1% over the forecast amount. Yearly 6.8 million folks have become extinct everywhere the globe thanks to medicine disorders. In Europe nearly 38th of total population is affected by a neurological disorder and in us Stroke is third leading reason for death.

Sleep and mental disorders generally occur at a similar time, and untreated sleep disorders will increase the chance of developing psychiatric conditions, like depression, later in life. Recent reports found that as several as simple fractions of patients called to sleep disorders centers have a psychiatric disorder. the foremost common mental disorders related to sleep complaints embrace depression, anxiety, and substance (illicit medication and alcohol) abuse.

Treating sleep disorders has been shown to improve the co-existing psychiatric condition and overall quality of life. However, these substances aren't effective within the long run and may cause a range of serious health and performance issues, together with psychiatric and medical disorders, and psychosocial issues like impaired performance in class or work.

Seizure disorder is a general term used to describe any condition wherever seizures are a symptom. Seizures are characterized by abnormal electrical activity within the brain that affects physical and mental functioning. There are 2 main kinds of seizures: generalized and partial. Generalized seizures involve the whole brain, whereas partial or focal seizures begin in one area of the brain.

Epilepsy is outlined as a group of related disorders characterized by a tendency to suffer repeated seizures. Seizures will occur at any time, and sometimes all at once. In most people, seizures are often controlled with treatment and will go away entirely, in others, seizures continue despite treatment and may last a lifetime.

Traumatic brain injury, also referred to as TBI, is a complicated injury that occurs from a sudden trauma that causes injury to the brain. TBI may result when your head suddenly hits an object or if an object pierces the skull. These injuries generally occur from falls, traffic accidents, interpersonal violence, or participation in sports. TBI is manifested by either loss of consciousness, alteration of consciousness or mental status, or focal neurological deficits, which can come and go. TBI is a leading reason behind morbidity and mortality worldwide. It remains the leading cause of death and disability among teenagers in developed countries.

Movement disorders are neurological conditions that cause issues with movement, such as:

  1. Increased movement which will be voluntary (intentional) or involuntary (unintended)
  2. Decreased or slow voluntary movement There are different types of movement disorders.

Some common types of disorders include:

Tourette Syndrome Disorder
Dystonia (including Spasmodic Torticollis)
Essential Tremor
Huntington's Disease
Parkinson's Disease
Spinocerebellar Ataxia Disorder
Tardive Dyskinesia
Tourette Syndrome Disorders

Autism is also called as Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Indicates to a wide range of illnesses characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication. Coming up to the Centers for Disease Control, autism affects an expected 1 in 59 children in the United States today. Prenatal viral infection has been known as the principal non-genetic cause of autism. Prenatal coverage to rubella or cytomegalovirus initiates the mother's immune response and may greatly increase the risk for autism in mice. Congenital rubella syndrome is the greatest convincing environmental cause of autism.

These are some of the characteristics of ASD:

Difficulties with social interaction with others.
Infrequent interest in objects
Essential for sameness
Huge variation in abilities
Under or over reaction to one or more of the five senses: sight, touch, taste, smell, or hearing
Frequent actions or body movements

Stroke is one in every of the largest causes of incapacity worldwide, nevertheless its neurological burden has been under-recognized as a result of it's been classified by the WHO as However, with the discharge of the newest revision of the WHO International Classification of disease (ICD-11), stroke has been reclassified as a neurological disease. vascular neurology is that the specialized treatment of strokes and stroke risk factors. you'll have to be compelled to see a vascular neurologist throughout or when a stroke, or if you're in danger of getting a stroke. A stroke is characterized by symptoms like weakness, numbness, vision changes and speech disturbance. The Division of vascular Neurology evaluates, treats and studies diseases that have an effect on the structure and performance of the blood vessels supply the brain. Our main purpose is to supply the simplest attainable look after our patients with stroke cerebrovascular disease.

Arterial Dissection
Carotid Stenosis
Intracranial Stenosis
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Venous Sinus Thrombosis
Migraine related Stroke
Recurrent Stroke Despite Treatment
Stroke in the Young
Stroke related to Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)
Cryptogenic Stroke

Neurocritical care is the intensive care management of patients with grave neurological and neurosurgical illnesses like massive stroke, bleeding in or round the brain (subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage), brain tumors, brain trauma, epilepsy, nerve and muscle diseases (myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barre Syndrome), spinal cord disorders and therefore the cardiopulmonary complications of brain injury. Neurocritical care provides the interface between the brain and different organ systems in the setting of critical ill health. Patients are taken care of at within single specialized unit. Neurocritical care units focus on managing the unique wants of such critically ill patients.

Ischemic Stroke
Hemorrhagic Stroke
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Traumatic Spine and Spinal Cord Injury
Seizures and Status Epilepticus (SE)
Infections of the Nervous System
Neuromuscular Emergencies
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System
Tumors of the Brain and Spinal Cord
Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs)
Cerebral Aneurysms (Brain Aneurysm)
Neurological Complications of Systemic Disease

Neurorehabilitation is treatment for neurological disorders was considered as neurological physical therapy. This treatment involved exercises to correct muscle dysfunction. because the field of neurological therapy evolved, numerous treatment modalities were added and research examining the advantages of neurorehabilitation following nervous system injury began to emerge. neurological rehab will usually improve function, reduce symptoms, and improve the well-being of the patient.

Speech Therapy
Physical Therapy
Recreational Therapy
Occupational Therapy
Vision Therapy
Vestibular Rehabilitation

Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, several of that terribly dangerous and grave (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the numerous examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and extremely anaplastic astrocytoma are among the worst.

Primary tumors of the CNS: Primary tumors of the CNS can occur at any age, from infancy to late in life. These tumors usually afflict individuals throughout their prime years. Factors like age, tumor location, and clinical presentation are helpful in differential diagnosis. Most types of primary tumors are a lot of common in men with the exception of meningiomas and a lot of common in women.

Metastatic tumors of the CNS: Cancer that spreads tumor to the nervous system by direct invasion, compression, or metastasis. Direct invasion or compression from continuous tissues relates to the proximity of the nervous system to different structures, such as the plexus brachialis, lumbosacral plexus, vertebral neuroforamina, base of skull, cranium, and pelvic bones.

Intracranial Metastasis
Skull Metastasis
Spinal Metastasis

Neuro-ophthalmology, a subspecialty of both neurology and ophthalmology, is that the treatment of visual problems that are related to the nervous system; that's, visual problems that do not come from the eyes themselves. we have a tendency to use virtually half of the brain for vision-related activities. Neuro-ophthalmologists undergo specialized training and experience in problems of the eye, brain, nerves and muscles. Neuro-ophthalmologists have distinctive abilities to evaluate patients from the neurologic, ophthalmologic, and medical standpoints to diagnose and treat a large variety of problems. though some problems seen by neuro-ophthalmologists aren't worrisome, alternative conditions can worsen and cause permanent visual loss, or become life threatening.

Abnormal Eye Movements (Ophthalmospasms or Nystagmus)
Double Vision
Intracranial Lesions affecting the Visual Pathway
Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
Migraine and Related visual Complaints
Optic Disc Swelling
Optic Neuritis
Other Optic Nerve Problems
Pupillary Abnormalities
Unexplained Vision Loss
Visual Field Defects

Neurogenetics is the center of some of the most exciting translational clinical and basic research in neurology and human genetics. Many of the fundamental processes underlying neurological disorder stay elusive and/or poorly understood. Genetics and proteomics (the study of proteins produced by genes) will increase our understanding of predisposition to diseases therefore we can develop the next wave of therapies to treat neurological disorder.

Advances in genomics and technologies provide opportunities to better delineate neurological syndromes, understand neurological disease progression, and refine clinical treatments. As genetic understanding and applications for the treatment of neurological disease increase, another problem emerges: training the clinical neurologists to apply genetic analysis and the use of genomics.

Neurophysiology provides insight nervous system that how it works and the way its dysfunction can results in disease. Neurophysiology is the study of organisms and their parts function. Neurophysiology is the study of the functioning of the nervous system, that includes the brain, the spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and sensory organs. The specialists study the CNS and peripheral nerves at the level of organs, cellular networks, individual cells.

A unique feature of this wide discipline is an interest in the mechanisms that relate to the generation and propagation of electrical impulses inside the neurons. Neurophysiology is an important subject not only for understanding of the processes of human thought, but also for ability to diagnose and treated these disorders related to nervous system.

This deals with toxicity of Central Nervous System (CNS), affecting the brain and destructs the Nerve tissues. Cases of this substances include Conotoxin, Chlorotoxin, Tetrodotoxin, causes neuro-toxicity & directly affecting the brain and related functions. Neurotoxicity may also occur due to some drug therapies, organ transplant or exposures to significant metal. Many billions of dollars spend each year voluntarily for purchasing chemicals like caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine to influence the nervous system.