Maximum number of people will think of neurosurgery as brain surgery — but it is much more! It is the medical specialty worried with the diagnosis and treatment of patients with injury to, or diseases/disorders of the brain, spinal cord and spinal column, and peripheral nerves within total parts of the body. The specialty of neurosurgical care includes both geriatric and pediatric patients. Depend upon the nature of the injury or disease a neurological surgeon may provide surgical and/or non-surgical care.