The word Pediatrics is derived from two Greek words: (pais = child) and (iatros = doctor or healer). Pediatrics means “healer of children” and this is a relatively new medical specialty, developing only in the mid-19th century. Abraham Jacobi (1830–1919) is known as the father of Pediatrics.

Clinical Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatricians are specially trained physicians who take care of children from age of new born to 18 years.  

Childhood obesity is a condition in which a child is overweight for their age. Obesity can lead to high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, metabolic syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, low self-esteem, and depression. Improving dietary habits, Physical activity and exercise in children are the best ways to achieve healthy weight in the child.

Neonatology is  subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn.

Neonatologists generally diagnose and treat newborns with conditions like breathing disorders, infections, and birth defects. Coordinate care and medically manage newborns born premature, critically ill, or in need of surgery

Perinatology also known as Maternal – fetal Medicine, which focuses on managing health issues of mother and fetus prior, during, and after gestation. Physicians subspecialize in the field of obstetrics deals with Perinatology. 

Congenital malformations (Birth defects )/ Congenital anamolies occur as a result of impoper development of Embryo. Birth defects may result from genetic or chromosomal disorders, exposure to certain medications or chemicals, or certain infections during pregnancy. A combination of genetic and dietary factors may lead to congenital malformations, as in the case of folic acid and neural tube defects. These defects can be caused by genetic abnormalities and/or environmental exposures, although the underlying etiology is often unknown.

Global birth prevalence of these Birth defects is about 2-3%. A correct identification of a congenital defect is the first step in order to offer a helpful genetic counseling to the parental couple. Because of their increasing life expectancy, congenital malformations represent today a major issue for neonatologists and Pediatricians.

NICU means Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, which is also known as Intensive care Nursery (ICN),which is specialized for Premature new borns or ill infants.

PICU means Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Children are taken to this PICU when they require the highest quality of care.

The NICU combines advanced technology with trained health care professionals to provide specialized care for the new born


Neonatal mortality results become better when there are sufficient prepared neonatal medical caretakers are accessible as tyke mortality is connected to the number and the nature of preparing of neonatal attendants.

Pediatric sustenance centers around giving proof based nutritional care to kids and youthful grown-ups. It manages the prosperity and generally wellbeing of the kids. Pediatric Nutritionists give individualized and multi-disciplinary nourishment guiding and intercessions for kids to advance development.

Neonatal sustenance is to guarantee that ideal nourishment is given in early stages to better establishment of wellbeing at later phases of life. Sustenance assumes a significant job in life particularly during the principal couple of weeks.

Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) is a medical subspecialty of both pediatrics and emergency medicine, in which the pediatric emergency medicine physician provides immediate recognition, evaluation, care, stabilization and disposition of infants and children in response to acute illness and injury.

Emergency is a condition which is severe injury or illness that is threatening to child's health or might cause permanent harm. Emergencies can be both physical and psychological in nature with symptoms that may include: Physical trauma involving the head, chest or abdomen.

The most common emergencies encountered in pediatric practice are:

Respiratory distress



Seizures and trauma.

Neonatal jaundice is common in preterm babies. Excess bilirubin is the main cause of jaundice. Bilirubin, which is responsible for the yellow color of jaundice, is a normal part of the pigment released from the breakdown of "used" red blood cells

The cause is often an immature liver. Infection, medications, or blood disorders may cause more serious cases.

Symptoms include yellowing of skin and the eyes. In many cases this is a normal process and occurs in about 2/3 of all healthy newborns.

4 types of Jaundice in new borns:

  • Pathologic jaundice. Pathologic jaundice is the most serious type of jaundice.
  • Physiologic (neonatal) jaundice
  • Breast milk jaundice.
  • Suboptimal intake jaundice.

Phototherapy can help resolve moderate or severe cases. Sunlight has been shown to break down the bilirubin most effectively; in fact, one hour of sunlight equals 6 hours under the special bilirubin lights at the hospital.

Irresistible Diseases and Global Health in Children plans to furnish clinical consideration to youngsters with a wide assortment of contaminations. It further aides in preparing the doctors in the conclusion and treatment of pediatric irresistible sicknesses. It includes the examination and research identified with driving reasons for death in kids.

DNA is made up of millions of small chemicals called bases. These are four types A, C, T and G. Every single gene is a section of DNA made up of a sequence of As, Cs, Ts and Gs.

Through Genetic testing few syndromes can be identified during pregnancy. The cell-free DNA in a sample of a woman's blood can be screened for Down syndrome, Patau syndrome (trisomy 13), Edwards syndrome, and problems with the number of sex chromosomes. This can be done starting at 10 weeks of pregnancy and results get in a week, whereas Newborn genetic screening identifies treatable genetic disorders in newborns. Early intervention to treat these disorders can eliminate or reduce symptoms that might otherwise cause a lifetime of disability.

The most common newborn screening tests include hypothyrodism (underactivity of the thyroid gland), PKU (phenylketonuria), galactosemia, and sickle cell disease. This test is generally performed when a baby is 24 to 48 hours old and should be tested in this time period only because few conditions may go undetected if the blood sample is drawn before 24 hours of age.

Neonatal resuscitation is a series of emergency procedures performed by a neonatologist to support newborn babies who are not breathing, are gasping or have a weak heartbeat at birth.

Pediatric Resuscitation has recommended that resuscitation of newborns should focus on ventilation of the lungs. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Heart Association (AHA) expressed a joint commitment to develop a training program aimed at neonatal resuscitation.

According to NRP guidelines the MR SOPA acronym to remind resuscitators to initiate ventilation corrective steps: M (mask adjustment), R (reposition airway), S (suction mouth and nose), O (open mouth), P (pressure increase), A (alternate airway).

If the newborn starts breathing, becomes pink and has a heart rate of > 100 bpm, post resuscitation care must be given. If heart rate is > 60 bpm, then support of the circulation by chest compression and positive pressure ventilation must be continued till the heart rate reaches > 100 bpm and the newborn becomes pink.

Reasons for Neonatal resuscitation:

  • Lack of prenatal care.
  • Gestational age < 36 weeks or ≥ 41 weeks.
  • Multiple gestations.
  • Need for forceps, vacuum assist or emergency cesarean delivery.
  • Meconium-stained fluid.
  • Shoulder dystocia, breech, or other abnormal presentation.
  • Certain abnormal heart rate patterns in the fetus.
  • Signs of infection in the infant.

Treatment should be provided longer than 30 Minutes . A new study has found that keeping resuscitation efforts going for longer could improve brain function in survivors.

PIDS (Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society) is the world's largest organization of Pediatric Infectious Diseases specialists dedicated to the treatment, control and eradication of infectious diseases in Pediatrics

Neonatal sepsis can be caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E coli), Listeria, and Group B streptococcus. However, this problem has become less common because women are screened during pregnancy. Most common infections in newborn are sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis.

There are many types of neonatal infections, including viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal. Many neonatal infections are minor and can be quickly reversed with proper diagnosis and care. However, some neonatal infections are very serious.

The antibiotics commonly used to treat neonatal sepsis include ampicillin, gentamicin, cefotaxime, vancomycin, erythromycin, and piperacillin

The three major causes of neonatal deaths worldwide are infections (36%, which includes sepsis/pneumonia, tetanus and diarrhoea), pre-term (28%), and birth asphyxia (23%).

Pediatric clinical research is a key part of making medical treatments safer and more comfortable for children and adolescents. Clinics like QPS work to overcome challenges like caregiver communication, scheduling conflicts, and patient comfort to make trials as stress-free as possible for everyone involved.

Pediatric Research is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of pediatrics and the official publication of the American Pediatric Society

The Neonatal Research Network address the critical need for rigorous research in babies admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs), so that solid evidence generated by such research can be used to improve the treatment and health outcomes of critically ill newborn babies.

The Neonatal Perinatal Research Unit (NPRU) explores causes, preventative measures, and treatments for ill newborn babies. These Centers collect data on mothers and their infants, the therapies they received, and the infants outcomes at discharge. These data are analyzed and dedicated to improving the outcomes of our babies.

Neonatal & Pediatric Pulmonology evaluates and treats infants and children with a variety of lung problems.

Pediatric Pulmonary specialists care for children with  

  • shortness of breath
  • wheezing
  • cough
  • noisy breathing
  • oxygen and ventilator dependency
  • recurrent pneumonia
  • Asthma
  • Aerodigestive disorders
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Chronic lung disease because of premature birth
  • Respiratory failure
  • Neuromuscular disorders
  • Sleep disorders
  • Chest wall and spine disorders (scoliosis): a condition in which a sideways curve in the spine causes breathing and sleep problems
  • Chronic and recurrent respiratory infections
  • Child interstitial lung disease, a group of rare lung diseases that decrease your child’s ability to get enough oxygen and other common pediatric and neonatal breathing conditions.

Hepatology is a branch of medicine concerned with the study, prevention, diagnosis, and management of diseases that affect the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.

Pediatric Hepatology is a one-year fellowship offered to individuals who have completed a three-year fellowship in Pediatric Gastroenterology. Fellows gain expertise in the field of general and transplant hepatology, and they fulfill the transplant hepatology milestones and competencies set forth by the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP), the American Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). At the completion of their training, fellows are certified from the American Board of Pediatrics Transplant Hepatology Certificate of Added Qualification (CAQ) Examination.

Pediatrician who specializes in transplant hepatology are pediatric gastroenterologists and care for patients prior to and after hepatic transplantation. Selection of appropriate recipients requires assessment by anexperienced team in evaluating the severity and prognosis of patients with liver disease.

Pediatric Hepatology is designed to enable physicians looking to accrue additional experience in the care of pediatric patients with hepatobiliary diseases, including those who undergo liver transplantation.


Robert Bunon (1702- 1748) is known as the father of Pediatric dentistry.

Pediatric dentistry is the branch of dentistry dealing with children from birth through adolescence. Pediatric dentists have special training and education which make them more qualified to work with kids.

The sooner children begin getting regular dental checkups, the healthier their mouths will stay throughout their lives. Early checkups help prevent cavities and tooth decay, which can lead to pain, trouble concentrating and other medical issues.

Pediatric dentistry is recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, and Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons.

Pediatric sports medicine specialists diagnose, treat, and manage the musculoskeletal and medical problems of children and teens, they are trained to address any issue that is associated with sports – everything from joint pain to osteoarthritis to nutrition. Including the following:

Sports medicine specialists:

Pediatric Neurology is the branch dealing with neurological conditions in babies, newborn children, youngsters and youths. Conditions managed by pediatric nervous system specialists include issues like headache or cerebral paralysis to progressively uncommon and complex conditions like neurodegenerative illnesses and metabolic infections.

Pediatric Cardiology deals with all parts of heart ailments in infants, kids and teenagers. It manages the maladies of the heart and the circulatory framework and incorporates analysis and treatment of innate heart illnesses and deformities, coronary illness, valvular coronary illness, heart disappointment and electrophysiology.

Neonatal and Perinatal Cardiology is a multi-disciplinary field in which neonatologist take care of the new borns with congenital heart problems and Fetal Cardiologists take care for the fetus heart; i.e when they find any abnormalities in the ultrasound scan of the  

Pediatric Surgery is a subspecialty of medical procedure which includes the medical procedure of embryos, babies, kids, teenagers and youthful grown-ups. It centers around the side effects, analysis, treatment, guess and follow-up of any wellbeing conditions emerging in these age gatherings.

Pediatric Immunology manages clinical consideration for offspring of any age who experience the ill effects of immunodefiency issue and incessant irresistible illnesses.

Vaccines protect by inducing effector mechanisms (cells or. molecules) capable of rapidly controlling replicating pathogens or inactivating their toxic components. Vaccine-induced immune effectors are essentially antibodies.

Further research in the field helps in giving master clinical consideration and creating learning about irresistible illnesses in kids.

Pediatric Psychology is a multidisciplinary field incorporating both logical research and clinical practice to address mental parts of sicknesses, damage, and to advance wellbeing practices in babies, kids, youths and families inside the setting of pediatric wellbeing. It offers a wide scope of treatment and assessment administrations for youngsters with therapeutic, mental, learning and conduct issues.

Pediatric Nephrology manages intense and ceaseless illnesses which influence renal function, blood pressure and disorders related to fluids and electrolytes in children Studies in the field include nourishing, medicinal, careful, physiologic, hereditary and biochemical parts of sicknesses in youngsters and youthful grown-ups.

Pediatric Gastroenterology  is a subspecialty of Pediatrics and Gastroenterology and is the treatment of the liver, pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract in kids from babies to adolscents. Liver, stomach related and wholesome issues in kids change from those found in grown-ups and concentrated preparing and experience is significant in Pediatric Gastroenterology.

Pediatric oncology is the exploration and treatment of malignancies in youngsters and youthful grown-ups. Pediatric oncologists study and train in both pediatrics and oncology. The sorts of diseases that create in youngsters are regularly unique in relation to malignant growths that create in grown-ups.

Child abuse refers to any emotional, sexual, or physical mistreatment or neglect by an adult in a role of responsibility (by a parent or a caregiver) toward someone who is under 18 years of age. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classify the types of child abuse as

physical abuse

sexual abuse

emotional abuse or neglect

According to WHO (World Health Organization) child/Children maltreatment is an abuse and its offensible.

Common problems of New born:

  • Crying. Crying is the baby's natural way of demanding a nappy change, cuddling, or a feed, if baby cries persistently then need to seek a neonatologist.
  • Jaundice. One of the most common problems among newborns is jaundice.
  • Bloated belly.
  • Coughing.
  • Noisy Breathing.
  • Skin related issues.
  • Nappy rash.
  • Colic Pain.
  • Ear Infections
  • Influenza
  • Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease



Pediatric Endocrinology investigates the issues which are identified with development, sexual improvement and different issues identified with the hormones in kids and youthful grown-ups. Pediatric Endocrinologists move in the direction of diagnosing hormone issues at a beginning period and getting them anticipate any long haul complications at a later stage.

Pediatric Rheumatology alludes to the assessment and treatment of an assortment of disarranges that include the muscles, bones, ligaments and joints in youngsters. 

Pediatrics recovery offers the most recent treatment and assessment methods to improve the capacity and personal satisfaction in kids matured with inabilities and gives exhaustive multidisciplinary rehabilitaion to youngsters with an assortment of judgments.

Neonatal glaucoma is an uncommon condition that can introduce in the infant or during youth. Signs and side effects of pediatric glaucoma incorporate shady cornea, tearing, visit squinting, light affectability, and redness of the eye. Kids can be brought into the world with ptosis (inherent) or procure it during youth.

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a gathering of issues that happen in an infants who was presented to addictive sedative medications while in the mother's belly. The heart and congenital fissure may prompt the analysis being made in the infant time frame

Most children who become infected with the COVID-19 virus have only a mild illness. But in children who go on to develop MIS-C (Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children) , some organs and tissues such as the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, digestive system, brain, skin or eyes become severely inflamed. Children with underlying medical conditions are at increased risk for severe illness compared to children without underlying medical conditions. children with COVID-19 may experience digestive symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea and nausea all of which can cause abdominal pain