Aquaculture is breeding, raising, and harvesting fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants. It is farming in water and responsible source of food and commercial products, helps to create healthier habitats, and is used to rebuild stocks of threatened or endangered species.
Aquaculturists, also known as fish farmers, fish culturists, or mariculturists, raise fish, shellfish, or other aquatic life (such as aquatic plants) under controlled conditions for profit and/or human consumption.
Innovations in aquaculture include technologies that diversify economy and food production, improve production efficiencies at the hatchery or farm levels while mitigating environmental impact; technologies that mitigate the occurrence of animal diseases or parasites, or that reduce or eliminate the use of antibiotics.
The main essential benefits are oxygen generation, coastal protection, climate moderation and of course seafood. The method to produce the seafood as a demand for fresh fish has put a strain on natural populations. It also involves the breeding and harvesting of plants and animals in the water.
Sustainable aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organism for commercial purposes by means that have a good natured impact on the environment, contribute to local social community development and to generate an economic profit.
Aquaculture requires optimisation of nutrition to efficiently raise fish for the purpose of food production. Fish nutrition is the study of nutrients and energy sources essential for fish health, growth and reproduction.
Fish do not live in isolation - they are part of the marine ecosystem and they interact closely with their physical, chemical and biological environment. They are dependant on the ecosystem to provide the right conditions for growth, reproduction and survival.
Fisheries biologists are scientists who study fish and their habitats. Scientists who work in this profession spend a lot of time outside. Fisheries biology is mostly focused on the behaviour of fish in their natural surroundings. Fisheries biologists collect data on fish.
New data processing technologies in fisheries include: big data, block chain, smart weighing at sea, Radio-frequency identification (RFID), smartphones for monitoring, artificial intelligence, drones, and on-board cameras.
Climate change will affect fish and their habitats. Warmer temperatures will influence the abundance, migratory patterns and mortality rates of wild fish stocks and determine what species can be farmed in certain regions.
Aquaculture comprises diverse systems of farming plants and animals in inland, coastal and marine areas, using and producing a wide variety of animal and plant species. While it is usually advisable to use local species, introduced (or alien) species have significant social and economic impact.
Understanding the aquatic environment and the behaviour of fish populations and how the environment influences the behaviour is important to formulate management measures for the fishery. Research is also carried out to assess the aquaculture potential of the Lake Kariba environment.
Fish is one of the most traded food commodities worldwide, with more than half of fish exports by value originating in developing countries. Recent reports highlight aquaculture's tremendous potential to contribute to global food security and nutrition.