Pediatric Orthopaedic surgeons are specialists who treat musculoskeletal (bone, joint, back, or muscle) problems in children. Their specialty training is particularly valuable when treating bones that are still growing.

  • Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
  • Femoral Anteversion
  • Club Foot
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Bone Cysts
  • Blount's Disease
  • Arthrogryposis
  • Achondroplasia
The branch of medicine which is involved in the medical care of infants, children and adolescent is coined as Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. The pediatrician is the one who plays the major role in treating the newborn these pediatricians work in both pediatric hospitals and particularly in subspecialties such as Neonatology units and also as outpatient primary care physicians. Some of the sub-specialties include Adolescent Medicine, Child Abuse Pediatrics, Clinical Informatics, Medical Toxicology, Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, Pediatric Genetics, Headache Medicine, Hospice and Palliative Care, Neonatology, Pain Medicine, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Pediatric Cardiology, Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care, Pediatric Critical Care, Neuro Critical Care, Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care. Adolescence is considered as a transitional phase of growth and development between childhood and adulthood. One in six people are aged 10–19 years affected by the adolescent health issues.
Pediatric dermatology deals with the study of skin disorders in children. Common procedures include protection from bites, stings, and photodamage; Managing dermatitis, Treatment of warts; Treating scabies and fungal infections.

In pediatrics the Neonatology is one of the subspecialty, which will operate the medical health care of infants who are ill or premature newborns, the treatment of these neonates are carried out in intensive care units (NICUs). The main focus of neonatologists is newborn infants who are very much ill and who require special medical care due to low birth weight, prematurity, and fetal alcohol affected newborn, congenital malformations (birth defects). The Perinatology is subspecialty of obstetrics which is concerned with the perinatal care of the fetus which is involved with complicated, high-risk pregnancies. In another term perinatology is also known as Maternal – Fetal medicine, the maternal-fetal medicine specialist is the one who typically works in consultation with the obstetrician.

Clinical Pediatrics is branch which deals with the pediatrics medicines for well-being and medical consideration of children, and adolescents from birth up to the age of 18. The main aim of the study of pediatrics is to control new-born and infant rate of deaths, control the spread of pediatric infectious disease. Many of the clinical trials and diagnosing technology methods were introduced to detect the actual initiation of diseases in infants and children. In short, Clinical Pediatrics is considered as a lively forum, with many editorials and letters discussing the foremost pediatric care issues of the day
The importance of ensuring good quality of care for women and newborn babies will be considered under neonatal health care, according to the research, more than 4 million infants die each year worldwide. The two-thirds of infant deaths approximately occur during the first month of life, making the first days of a child’s life critical to its survival and future health. The first days and weeks of lives are considered to be very critical for the future health and survival of new born. Nearly two-thirds of the 6.5 million infant deaths taking place within the first four weeks of life in each year, and about two-thirds of those occur within the first week.
Pediatric Cardiology is the branch of medicine that addresses the heart condition of, infants, children and teenagers. Pediatric Cardiology treatment in the world has greatly evolved in the past few years and has helped thousands of children to lead normal lives today. The rate of around 8 for every thousand live births are taking place, 1 congenital cardiac defects are the most common forms of human malformation. With the current advances in pediatric cardiac surgery and percutaenous cardiac interventional procedures, more and more infants and children will survive and reach adulthood. It is estimated that the number of such patients will grow at a rate of 5% per year. 2There is thus a very high likelihood that many primary care pediatricians (PCP) will experience and be called upon to deal with this developing patient populace.Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) was originally described as the spectrum of a large mal-aligned VSD, with over-riding of the aorta, pulmonary outflow obstruction due to anterior deviation of the outlet septum, and right ventricular hypertrophy. The degree of cyanosis is determined by the severity of right heart obstruction, which may range from mild pulmonary stenosis to atresia of the pulmonary trunk. When obstruction to the right ventricular outpouring tract (RVOT) is mild, cyanosis is insignificant or even nonexistent, the alleged "pink tets. The other extreme, pulmonary atresia, results in severe cyanosis once the PDA closes, in the absence of significant aorto-pulmonary artery collateral vessels.

Neonatal conjunctivitis, is also called as ophthalmia neonatorum, presents during the first month of life of neonate. It might be aseptic or septic. Aseptic neonatal conjunctivitis frequently is a chemical conjunctivitis that is actuated by silver nitrate arrangement, which is used at childbirth for Crede prophylaxis of infectious conjunctivitis. Chemical conjunctivitis is winding up less basic attributable to the utilization of erythromycin ointment or povidone iodide instead of silver nitrate solution for the prophylaxis of infectious conjunctivitis.

Differential diagnosis of neonatal conjunctivitis includes

  • Congenital glaucoma
  • Nasolacrimal duct obstruction
  • Preseptal/Orbital cellulitis
  • Congenital glaucoma
  • Infectious keratitis
Breastfeeding gives kids the best begin throughout everyday life. It is evaluated that more than one million kids bite the dust every year from looseness of the bowels, respiratory and different diseases since they are not enough breastfed. A lot more youngsters experience the ill effects of pointless ailments that they would not have in the event that they were breastfed. Breastfeeding additionally ensures moms' wellbeing. In the beginning the mother milk is gold for its deep yellow color and colostrum is the thick first milk that you make during the pregnancy and just after birth. This milk is very rich in nutrients and includes many antibodies to protect your baby from infections. Colostrum also helps your newborn infant’s digestive system in order to grow and function. Baby will get only a small amount of colostrum at each feeding because the stomach of a newborn infant is tiny and can hold only a small amount.

Pediatric Nutrition is the sustenance of an appropriate well-adjusted eating regimen comprising of the imperative supplements and the satisfactory caloric admission important to advance development and support the physiologic necessities at the different phases of a child’s improvement and development.

Neonatal Nutrition is basic, particularly to empower development and support the physiologic requests at the different phases of a child’s improvement in the beginning periods of life. Brest Feeding and integral bolstering has significant fixings that are not found in any newborn child equation, to construct the infant's safe Immune System. All in all, infants ought to be in any event 4 pounds before they are prepared to leave the incubator.

Neonatal disorders means disrupting impact of customary state of the body, organs and strange capability of Associate in nursing child care. Obstetricians accept a momentous 0.5 to restrain the amount of child disorders. Assortment of the by and large decided messes is immatureness, digestion brokenness, birth injury, inalienable bends, anemia, child sickness and lysis issue.

The most vital occasion is at interims the unfavorable and low birth weight newborn child. Potential occasions of reflex hypoglycemia at interims the incipient organism delivering ceased up wetter production. Clinical signs, for instance, Tachypnea. Tokenism nasal flaring or breath incommunicative, ABG's: mellow hypoxemia. PaCO2 relies upon whether the issue is preventive or non-preventive.

Treatment contrasts hugely depending upon the reason and signs of the nutritious issues. an infant child may put on a particular utilization routine and guided dietary supplements, regularly after they are thin, encountering treatment, and experiences formative deferrals.

The birth of a baby is a wonderful at the same time it is very complex process. Many physical and emotional changes occur for mother and baby after the new born, A baby must make many physical adjustments by themselves to life outside the mother's body. Leaving the uterus that means, a baby can no longer depend up on the mother's circulation and placenta for important physiologic functions. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), is also termed as intensive care nursery (ICN), this is the special area to care of ill or premature newborn infants. nurseries or intensive care units play the major role with the new born.

The Reasons why new born must send to NICU

  • Prematurity
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)Sepsis or infection
  • Hypoglycemia Perinatal Depression
  • Maternal Chorioamnionitis
The deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX (FIX) is congenital disorder leads to Gene therapy during neonatal and infant stages is a promising approach for hemophilia B. In spite of advancements of neonatal concentrated consideration medication, it is as yet troublesome or difficult to treat a few acquired genetic disorders utilizing regular pharmacological strategies. Quality treatment is a promising substitute methodology for treating an assortment of genetic disorders. When the patient achieves adulthood, be that as it may, it is regularly past the point of no return for powerful treatment. Be that as it may, in a few of these cases, neonatal gene therapy appears potentially useful against inherited disorders that are not obviously treatable through any other methods. This part depicts the methodology for neonatal quality treatment for acquired issue and displays preclinical neonatal quality treatment information for two acquired issue, metachromatic leukodystrophy and hypophosphatasia.
The treatment of pediatric HIV disease, especially of newborn children and youthful youngsters, remains perplexing and hazardous. The fast development and organ framework development and enthusiastic furthermore, subjective changes that happen over the formative range from early stages through puberty muddle tranquilize improvement and organization. Adherence results in kids have been not exactly powerful and emotional wellness and conduct issues are rising as basic to comprehend and address so as to guarantee the achievement of long haul treatment. Also, while less tainted kids are being conceived, there are expanding worries about the long haul effect of in utero and postnatal exposures to antiretroviral drugs for those kids who departure HIV. As of now an expected 20% of all newborn children conceived in sub-Saharan Africa are uncovered to HIV and antiretrovirals during pregnancy and the postnatal period.
The initial 28 days of life – the neonatal period – speak to the most helpless time for a child’s survival. In 2018, 2.6 million passings, or generally 46% of all under-five passings, happen during this period. This means 7000 newborn deaths every day. Most of the neonatal deaths are moved in the concentrated day and week, with around 1 million kicking the bucket on the first day and near one million dying within the next six days. Diminishing neonatal mortality is progressively significant not just in light of the fact that the extents of under-five deaths that happen during the neonatal period is expanding as under-five mortality decays yet in addition on the grounds that the wellbeing mediations expected to address the real reasons for neonatal deaths for the most part vary from those expected to address other under-five deaths.
The investigation of pediatric nephrology determines diagnosis and management of infants with a chronic and acute kidney disorders. The division of pediatric nephrology surveys and treats hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, renal tubular acidosis, nephrolithiasis, glomerulonephritis and kidney harm in children. It likewise incorporates total consideration to pediatric patients with end arrange kidney disorders, including thought to patients encountering peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis and kidney transplantation in newborn children.

Neonatal surgery contains the treatment of infants in the first 28 days of birth. Pediatric surgery is involving the surgery of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Subspecialties of pediatric surgery that include neonatal surgery and fetal surgery. Common pediatric diseases that may require pediatric surgeries include: abdominal wall defects, chest wall deformities, sub-clavian-pulmonary artery anastomosis for blue babies, esophageal atresia, tracheaesophageal fistula, open-heart surgery.

When Pediatric Surgery is required..?

  • New Born Emergency
  • Unusual Neoplasm
  • Special Childhood Disease
  • Life Threatening Trauma

Pediatric Infectious Diseases are the ailments which will impact at time of adolescence. Infectious diseases area unit disorders caused by organisms — like bacterium, viruses, fungi or parasites. Some infectious diseases are often passed from person to person. Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are consulted for diseases that are complicated or atypical, including Respiratory infections, Tuberculosis (TB), Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Hepatitis.

Pediatric Infections Diseases Includes

  • Tropical Infectious Diseases
  • Bacterial and Fungal Infections
  • Congenital Infections
  • Neonatal Anamolies
  • Common Infectious Diseases
Childhood obesity is a condition in which excess body fat will negatively affects a child's health or well-being. The methods of determination of body fat are directly difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is often based on BMI. The estimation of Body mass index or BMI is a simple and widely used technique for estimating body fat mass. Obesity for children is considered to be dangerous because many of the overweight children will become overweight during adolescent developing stage.
Glucose is the real vitality source for fetus and neonate. The infant mind relies on glucose only. Up to 90% of complete glucose utilized is devoured by the cerebrum. Interchange fills (e.g., ketones, lactate) are created in low amounts. The standard rate of glucose use is 4-8 mg/kg/min. Glucose administrative instruments are drowsy during childbirth. In this way, the newborn child is defenseless to hypoglycemia when glucose requests are expanded or when exogenous or endogenous glucose supply is constrained. Serious or delayed hypoglycemia may result in long term neurologic damage.

Pediatric neurology deals with central and peripheral system in children, new born and adolescents. The subject Neurology includes all diseases and disorders associated with funiculus, involuntary system, peripheral system, brain, muscles and blood vessels that have an effect on people of tiny age teams.

The new frontier to boost outcomes in critically unwell medical specialty patients with medical specialty ill health is medical specialty Neurocritical Care. Medical specialty Neurology deals with the diagnose the matter moreover as treating the every kind of diseases and disorders of funiculus, brain, central and peripheral system. Around seventieth of new born who are suffering encephalopathy throughout their childhood eventually outgrow it. Resonance spectroscopic analysis (MRS) may be a diagnostic tool used for transmissible metabolic disorders.

  • Craniofacial anomalies
  • Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)Epilepsy & Seizures
  • Phakomatosis
  • Muscular dystrophy and inborn myopathies
  • Peripheral neuropathies
  • Congenital malformations
  • Ischemic Stroke
The nursing specialty that deals with the care of pregnancy women and childbirth and newborn children. The subject “maternal-child nursing” has three subordinate terms in the CINAHL subject headings hierarchy: obstetric nursing, perinatal nursing, pediatric nursing. The maternal-child nurse are also needs the technical skills in order to effectively understand advanced equipment and procedures. In terms of care home funding, tasks identified by a nursing needs assessment as those that need to carried out or supervised by a qualified nurse – injections, dressings etc. Nurses should be licensed as healthcare professionals, who provide nursing care to patients as per their clinical condition, based on the doctor’s prescription.
Children and teens when they are acutely ill or injured are treated under Pediatric Emergency Medicine. A pediatric emergency physician is trained to care for a wide range of problems that which requires immediate medical help. These problems are often serious and may be considered to be life-threatening. Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice is the main evidence-based resource that gives compact, pertinent data on the administration of pediatric patients. Membership gives you new issues each month, each concentrating on the down to earth utilization of the evidence for topics like trauma, cardiovascular emergencies, asthma. We make you stride by venture from the minute your patient presents to the ED with a frequently obscure grumbling, through hazard stratification, lab testing and imaging, treatment, and disposition.
Pediatric anesthesia has become into an undeniably significant part of anesthesiology for the most part and of pediatric surgery procedure explicitly. Ongoing advances in pediatric surgical procedures make it mandatory that anesthesiologists, pediatricians and specialists cautiously evaluate the sedative operators and methods which will be best in babies and children. The creators of this monograph are outstandingly able to undertake this task, and just such eminently qualified people could have completed their assignment in so compact and clear a way. The content, with outlines and tables, has just 240 pages; yet the field is all around secured.
When a is child suffering from allergies or other problems during this process their immune system will won’t support then a pediatric allergist/immunologist will pay a major role with his special skills to treat a child. Pediatric Asthma is chronic lower respiratory disease in childhood throughout the world. Asthma is considered as the most often which will starts early in life and has variable courses and unstable phenotypes which may progress or remit over time. Asthma is the most notable interminable lower respiratory disease in youth all through the world. A few rules as well as accord documented records are accessible to help medical choices on pediatric asthma. Despite the fact that there is no question that the utilization of normal deliberate methodologies for the executives can extensively improve results, scattering and usage of these are still significant difficulties. The International Collaboration in Asthma, The motivation behind this archive is to feature the key messages that are normal to a significant number of the current rules, while fundamentally inspecting and remarking on any distinctions, along these lines giving a compact reference. The principles of pediatric asthma the board are commonly acknowledged. Generally, the treatment objective is managing the disease.

Pediatric urology is considered as a surgical subspecialty of medicine which deals with the disorders of childrens genitourinary systems. Pediatric urologists will provide care to both the boys and girls ranging from birth to early adult age. The most common problems which are involving in disorders include urination, reproductive organs and testes. Pediatric Urology is branch of surgical subspecialty of medicine dealing with the disorders of children's genitourinary systems. Pediatric urologists are the surgeons who can diagnose, treat, and manage the children’s urinary and genital problems.

The following are urological procedures performed by the pediatric urologists

  • Open operations on the kidney, bladder & urethra
  • Pyeloplasty, ureteric reimplantation, bladder augmentation,
  • Hypospadias surgeries
  • Laparoscopic urological surgeries like Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty and Ureteric Reimplantation
  • Endourological procedures like PUV fulguration, deflux injection
  • Urodynamic studies
  • Special Bladder Clinics for bladder anomalies in children