Industrial fermentation is the deliberate use of fermentation by micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi and eukaryotic cells such as CHO cells and insect cells, to make products more useful to humans. Ripe products serve as food and in the general industry. Other chemical substances, such as acetic acid, citric acid, and ethanol are produced by fermentation. The fertility rate depends on the combination of bacteria, cells, cellular components, and enzymes as well as temperature, pH, and oxygen levels for aerobic fermentation. Product recovery usually involves concentrating on the dilute solution. Almost all commercially produced enzymes, such as lipase, invertase, and rennet, are produced by fermented genetically modified microbes. In some cases, the production of biomass itself is objective, as is the case with single-celled proteins, baker's yeast, and the original cultures of lactic acid bacteria used in cheese making.
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