Polymers are the macromolecules attained by repetition of a simple chemical unit itself into a large number of times. Some polymers are biocompatible so they can be used as biomaterials and that can be of the following types, i.e., Natural Polymers: Chitosan, Collagen, Alginate. Applications of these natural polymers are in medical industry such as drug delivery, wound dressing and tissue engineering. Synthetic Polymers like Polyvinylchloride (PVC), Polypropylene, Polymethyl methacrylate are used in implants, medical disposable supplies, dressings, etc. Biodegradable Biomaterials: Polyactide, Polyglycolide, etc. These kind of biomaterials are valuable as they regenerate tissue and does not leave any residual traces upon implantation. These are mostly used for tissue screws, cartilage repair, and drug delivery systems. Biomaterials can also be used as packaging material. Polymer composites are widely used for preparing medical implants.
Biomaterials are natural or synthetic materials that are intended to interrelate with the biological system either as a part of the medical device or to replace or to repair any injured organs or tissues. Biomaterials are naturally available materials or they can be made synthetically. Silk and gelatin are few natural biomaterials, while the Synthetic ones are the various forms of polymers, ceramics, and composites. To re-establish injured portions of the musculoskeletal system and in dental and orthopedic fields Bioceramics like Alumina, Bioglass, and Zirconia are used. Biocomposites are designed by using resin and natural fibers. It can be non-wood natural fibers (rice, wheat, coconut, etc.) or wood fibers (magazines, soft and hardwoods). Metals are mostly a hard choice of biomaterials in the fields of dental, orthopedic, cardiac implants because metals can lead to wear, corrosion. So, surface coating and modification of metals are essential for medical applications.