The study of epidemiology and social health policies relevant to oral health. Dental public health is defined as “The science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts.” A common misconception about dental public health is that its primary objective is the delivery of dental care to low-income persons.

  • Oral health surveillance
  • Assessing the evidence on oral health and dental interventions, programmes, and services
  • Policy and strategy development and implementation
  • Oral health improvement
  • Health and public protection
  • Developing and monitoring quality dental services
  • Dental public health intelligence
  • Academic dental public health
  • Role within health services

Oral Hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean, and is considered to be the best means of prevention of cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, and other dental disorders. It also helps to prevent bad breath (halitosis).Oral hygiene is necessary for all persons to maintain the health of their teeth and mouth. Healthy teeth have fewer cavities. They are clean and have minimal or no plaque deposits. Healthy gums are pink and firm.

  • Patient screening procedures
  • Oral health conditions
  • Review of the health history
  • Oral cancer screening, head and neck inspection Dental charting and taking blood pressure and pulse
  • Taking and developing dental radiographs
  • Oral hygiene strategies
  • Counselling patients
  • Performing documentation and office management activities

Dentist Anesthesiologist (DA) have the opportunity to help patients undergo Dental and Oral Surgery treatment that they may not otherwise be able to receive by providing advanced sedation and general anesthesia care. While a majority of Dentist Anesthesiologists provide anesthesia services for other dentists in their offices, Dentist Anesthesiologists also practice in surgery centers, hospitals, and in educational institutions to share their training in pain and anxiety control with colleagues and future dentists.

Dentist Anesthesiologists receive specialized, hospital-based training in areas including pharmacology, internal medicine, emergency medicine, and Pediatric and adult Anesthesiology. There is a particular emphasis on improving patient safety in Dentistry and some pursue research related to all areas of Anesthesiology.

The face, neck and jaws are some of the most complex anatomical regions in the human body. Abnormalities of this structure are commonly referred to as “Pathology”. The specialty Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology is concerned with diagnosis and study of the causes and effects of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. It is sometimes considered to be a specialty of dentistry and pathology. Sometimes the term head and neck pathology is used instead, but this might imply that the pathologist deals with otorhinolaryngologic disorders (i.e. ear, nose and throat) in addition to maxillofacial disorders. In this role there is some overlap between the expertise of head and neck pathologists and that of endocrine pathologists.

  • Congenital
  • Malocclusion
  • Cleft lip and palate
  • Macroglossia
  • Ankyloglossia
  • Stafne defect
  • Torus palatinus
  • Torus mandibularis
  • Eagle syndrome
Technology in the field of radiology is changing so quickly that practitioners like oral and maxillofacial radiologists are pioneers in a constantly evolving field of practice. It’s an exciting and growing specialty for dental students to consider. Oral radiologists have advanced education and experience in radiation physics, biology, safety and hygiene, which enables them to take and interpret conventional and digital images, Computed Tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and similar techniques to help diagnose and treat oral-facial diseases and conditions.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons are specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of a broad range of disorders affecting the facial complex and skeleton, including the jaws and oral cavity.

  • Cosmetic facial surgery
  • Cranio-maxillofacial trauma
  • Craniofacial surgery/pediatric maxillofacial surgery/cleft surgery
  • Head and neck cancer – microvascular reconstruction
  • Maxillofacial regeneration

The Art and Science of restoring the tooth form and function when destructed by carious and non-carious lesions affecting the teeth, before involvement of pulp or root canal is termed as Conservative Dentistry.

  • Restoration, Rehabilitation and Maintenance of the Dentition
  • Innovative Treatment Protocols
  • Conducive Learning Environment
  • Innovative Research and Publication
  • To Promote Collaboration with Various Institutions and Disciplines
  • Understanding Scientific Literature and Manufacturer's Advertising Claims

The gathering and use of dental evidence in law. This may be performed by any dentist with experience or training in this field. The function of the Forensic Dentist is primarily documentation and verification of identity.

  • Identification of found human remains
  • Identification in mass fatalities
  • Assessment of bite mark injuries
  • Assessment of cases of abuse (such as child, spousal or elder abuse)
  • Civil cases involving malpractice
  • Age estimation

Geriatric Dentistry or Geriodontics is the delivery of dental care to older adults involving the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of problems associated with normal aging and age-related diseases as part of an interdisciplinary team with other health care professionals.

  • Dental Health of Geriatric Population
  • Medical Conditions affecting Oral Health
  • Oral changes
  • Dental care in residential aged care facilitates
  • Barriers to effective cleaning
  • Dentures and Edentulism

Pediatric Dentistry is a specialty that adapts techniques and procedures from general dentistry and specialties to provide primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care for children. Pediatric Dentists treat a broad range of diseases in infants, children and adolescents, including those with special health care needs, and are experts in providing care to make their patients feel comfortable. Pediatric Dentists also educate their patients and the patient’s parents about the importance of oral health and preventative oral health care.

  • Diagnosing oral diseases
  • Promoting oral health
  • Creating treatment plans to maintain or restore the oral health of their patients
  • Interpreting x-rays and diagnostic tests
  • Ensuring the safe administration of anesthetics
  • Monitoring growth and development of the teeth and jaws.
  • Performing surgical procedures on the teeth, bone and soft tissues of the oral cavity Repairing or filing of decaying teeth
  • Fixing dental injuries, including fractured, displaced, and knocked out teeth

Oral Biology is a tremendously diverse scientific area encompassing the disciplines of molecular biology and genetics, microbiology and immunology, genomics, biochemistry, biophysics, craniofacial development, pharmacology, physiology, and cancer biology. Because of the unique combination of tissues and functions of the mouth and craniofacial complex, the field of oral biology blends fundamental scientific disciplines in unique and fascinating ways to meet the challenges of developing new and highly effective ways to manage, cure or prevent diseases and developmental defects. Research in the Department of Oral Biology encompasses all aspects of Oral Biology.

  • Cell and Molecular Biology of tissues of the Oral cavity
  • Signal Transduction
  • Biomineralization
  • Genomics
  • Tissue Engineering of Oral structures
  • Applied Clinical Research AIDS Research
  • Oral Microbiology and Cariology
  • Functional Anatomy
  • Evolutionary Biology

The Section of Oral Medicine and Orofacial Pain is comprised of two clinical dental disciplines. The Oral Medicine specialty centers on the diagnosis and non-surgical management of medically related disorders and Oral Diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial region.Oral Medicine is the discipline of Dentistry concerned with the oral health care of medically complex patients - including the diagnosis and management of medical conditions that affect the Oral and Maxillofacial region.

The Specialty of Orofacial Pain focuses on the prevention, evaluation, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of chronic orofacial pain disorders.Orofacial pain has been defined as "pain localized to the region above the neck, in front of the ears and below the orbitomeatal line, as well as pain within the oral cavity i.e., pain of Dental origin and Temporomandibular Disorders". However, some orofacial pain conditions may involve areas outside this region, i.e., temporal pain in TMD. Toothache, or Odontalgia, is any pain perceived in the teeth or their supporting structures . Toothache is therefore a type of Orofacial pain. Craniofacial pain is an overlapping topic which includes pain perceived in the head, face, and related structures, sometimes including neck pain.

Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics is the specialty of dentistry that focuses on the alignment of the teeth and the dental arches: the maxilla and the mandible. The practice of this specialty includes diagnosis, prevention, interception, and correction of malocclusion and other abnormalities of the developing or mature Orofacial structures.
Orthodontic treatment can focus on dental displacement only, or deal with the control and modification of facial growth. In the latter case it is better defined as "Dentofacial Orthopedics". In severe malocclusions that can be a part of craniofacial abnormality, management often requires a combination of Orthodontics with headgear or reverse pull facemask and/or jaw surgery or Orthognathic surgery.

“Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics” is one of the nine specialties. Essentially, while Orthodontics entails the management of tooth movement, Dentofacial Orthopedics involves the guidance of facial growth and development, which occurs largely during childhood. Appliances are frequently used the more familiar braces for Orthodontics, and other specialized appliances like headgear and expanders depending on what facial abnormalities are present. Sometimes Orthopedic treatment may precede conventional braces, but often the two are used at the same time. So if child gets braces and headgear, he's actually undergoing orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics.

Endodontics encompasses the practice of the basic and clinical sciences of normal dental pulp, the etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and injuries of the dental pulp along with associated periradicular conditions.

Endodontics has evolved tremendously in the past decade and its applications have immensely improved the quality of dental treatment. In clinical terms, Endodontics involves either preserving part, or all of the dental pulp in health, or removing all of the pulp in irreversible disease. This includes teeth with irreversibly inflamed and infected pulpal tissue. Not only does Endodontics involve treatment when a dental pulp is present, but also includes preserving teeth which have failed to respond to non-surgical endodontic treatment, or for teeth that have developed new lesions, i.e., when root canal re-treatment is required, or periradicular surgery.

The main purpose of Endodontic treatment is to remove the diseased pulp, clean and shape the root canal system, disinfect the contaminated root canals, and then Obturate the root canal system to prevent re-infection and promote periradicular healing. The aim is to have radiographic evidence of healing, with no postoperative lesions present, and restored periradicular health if preoperative lesions were present. The main reason for dental pulpal problems has been related to bacterial contamination of the root canals. Therefore, significantly reducing the bacterial load within the root canal system, and then filling the canals with an inert obturating material aid in preventing bacterial re-infection.

Periodontics is the branch of Dentistry that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disease and conditions of supporting and surrounding tissues of the teeth.

A Periodontist is a person who helps you in situations when your gums aren’t in optimal condition. Of course, gums aren’t the only focus for Periodontists. Professionals also work on other parts of the mouth, i.e., the part of the jawbone that supports your teeth is the alveolar process. Any issues with this part of the jaw could lead to tooth loss, especially in women. That’s because it’s the bone portion that hosts tooth sockets. When your alveolar process deteriorates or breaks, you need a Periodontist to reset it and secure your teeth.

Similarly, the Cementum is the tissue that connects your teeth and gums. It’s a calcified substance with a simple purpose. Cementum protects the roots of your teeth. To do this, it connects the alveolar bone with the teeth via the periodontal ligament.

Prosthodontics is the Dental specialty concerned with the making of artificial replacements for missing parts of the mouth and jaw. It is primarily concerned with the restoration and replacement of lost or damaged teeth. Sometimes called the “Architects of the Smile,” Prosthodontists are highly trained specialists with a unique understanding of all the elements that go into a beautiful, functional and natural-looking smile—not just the teeth, but also the gums, lips, and facial features. It has specific branches i.e., Removable Prosthodontics, Fixed Prosthodontics, Maxillofacial Prosthodontics and Implant Prosthodontics. It is the dental specialty pertaining to:

  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment planning
  • Rehabilitation
  • Maintenance of the Oral function, Comfort, Appearance, Health of patients

Dental Materials are specially fabricated materials, designed for use in dentistry. Dental Materials should have certain characteristics to be effective in dental health maintenance. Characteristics which are particularly important are safety and compatability with oral tissues (non-irritating), as well as longevity. Dental Materials and devices are regulated for safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Efficacy can be defined as the ability of a dental material to function as was intended within the Oral cavity.

  • Temporary Dressings
  • Dental Restorations
  • Endodontic Materials
  • Impression Materials
  • Prosthetic Materials
  • Dental Implants

Integrative Medicine is a growing discipline whereby the goal is to understand the cause and effect relationships of health and disease. Patients are counselled on how to prevent accelerated aging and chronic degenerative conditions, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. At the same time, patients are coached on how they can engage in a lifestyle that can turn back the clock, increase energy, sharpen their minds, make them trimmer, fitter, sexier and help them live with much more vibrancy and joy. The Researchers attempt to coin the following basic principles as being unique to Alternative Dentistry. Proper nutrition for the prevention and reversal of degenerative dental disease

  • Avoidance and elimination of toxins from dental materials
  • Prevention and treatment of dental malocclusion
  • Prevention and treatment of gum disease at its biological basis

Sports dentistry is the branch of sports medicine dealing with prevention and treatment of dental injuries and oral diseases associated with sports and exercise. Amateur and young athletes face greater risk of oral injuries, because they may not receive proper guidance and/or training. Although the indication of customized types of mouthguards has increased, and the effectiveness for preventing injuries has been demonstrated, there is a need to further specify the sport characteristic, age group, selected material, guard design, as well as time of use. Current evidence also shows that mouthguards may lose efficiency over time, due to use and regular maintenance.

Injuries, facial bone fractures and brain concussions should receive special attention, as sports-related blows may carry a considerable amount of energy. Aerial duels with projection of the body and consequent head and/or elbow contact completely change the impact received on the facial bone structure. Face shields, or customized masks made of scientifically determined cushioning materials, may be successfully applied and may be indicated for post-fracture use to reduce recovery time for the athlete. Customized sports mouthguards and face shields manufactured under the supervision of a dentist, should be favoured instead of commercially available pre-sized guards sold over-the-counter.