Microbiology is a study of microorganisms, or microbes, a diverse group of generally minute simple life-forms that include bacteria, archaea, algae, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.
Parasitology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of the biology of parasites and parasitic diseases, including the distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of parasites, including the host response to these agents.
Applied microbiology is a branch deals with application of microorganisms in the field of science for the production of human beneficial products such as medicines, antibiotics, vaccines, enzymes, biotechnological engineered products and also in food technology as fermentation products.
Environmental microbiology is the study of how microbes interact with the environment and each other, including their effects on the landscape, the spread of viruses and bacteria, the distribution of algae, fungi and parasitical organisms and the associated implications for human health and the environment.
Industrial Microbiology is a branch of applied microbiology in which microorganisms are used for the production of important substances, such as antibiotics, food products, enzymes, amino acids, vaccines, and fine chemicals.
Veterinary Microbiology is concerned with bacterial and viral diseases of domesticated vertebrate animals (livestock, companion animals, fur-bearing animals, game, poultry, but excluding fish) that supply food, other useful products or companionship.
Microbial biotechnology is a well-established branch of biotechnology, which include the application of microorganisms with emerging modern techniques of biotechnology for the development of sustainable agriculture. Microbial biotechnology deals with the manipulation through genetic engineering of living organisms or their components to produce valuable products for various applications.
Microbial genomics is largely the identification and characterization of their genetic compositions. The ability to process and analyze the genomic data collected from microbial organisms is a cornerstone of modern bioinformatics.
Microbiology techniques are methods used for the study of microbes, including bacteria and microscopic fungi and protists. They include methods to survey, culture, stain, identify, engineer and manipulate microbes.
Antimicrobial stewardship is a coordinated program that promotes the appropriate use of antimicrobials (including antibiotics), improves patient outcomes, reduces microbial resistance, and decreases the spread of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms.
Antimicrobial resistance occurs when microbes evolve mechanisms that protect them from the effects of antimicrobials.
Antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria. It is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections.
Microbial genomics is largely the identification and characterization of their genetic compositions. The ability to process and analyze the genomic data collected from microbial organisms is a cornerstone of modern bioinformatics. Microbial physiology. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the functions of microorganisms and their parts.
Clinical Immunology mainly focuses on the diagnosis or prevention of infectious disease, diagnosis of immune deficiency, detection of autoimmune responses, and diagnosis of hypersensitivity conditions.
Structural biology can provide numerous insights in the field of immunology, including uncovering pathogen structure and receptor/ligand structures, both of which can be used to rationally design therapeutics to prevent or treat infection.
Cancer immunology is the study of interactions between the immune system and cancer cells. Tumor immunology refers to the relationship between immune function and tumor cells, which is crucial for our understanding of the mechanisms of both tumor rejection and tumor progression.
The innate immune system, lungs and conducting airways have evolved specialized mechanisms to protect the respiratory system not only from these harmful inhaled substances but also from the overly exuberant innate immune activation that can arise during the host response to harmful inhaled substances.
Diagnostic Immunology is a diagnostic method that relies on antigen-antibody reaction for detection of the disease. Immunologic methods are used as tools in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases and immune-mediated diseases.
Veterinary immunology is a branch under biomedical science and related to zoology and veterinary sciences. It is the study of all aspects of immune system in animals. The study include malfunctions and disorders, but also health, of the immune system in animals.
Microbial immunology is the study of the molecular mechanisms utilized by microorganisms to bring about sickness in people and creatures. Bacterial, protozoan, parasitic and viral pathogens have developed a wide collection of gadgets to develop themselves in the host and get supplements, which moreover cause impedance and ailment. To comprehend the wonderful forms cast-off by contagious pathogens, microbiologists and immunologists use all of the devices of present-day sub-nuclear science inherited characteristics, destructiveness components, sedate joint efforts, natural science, and biophysics. Perceiving how microorganisms cause affliction is normally the underlying advance toward the improvement of new antibodies and therapeutics and its spread all pieces of the interrelationship between overpowering authorities and their hosts.
Immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs. Together they help the body fight infections and other diseases. When bacteria or viruses invade your body, they attack and multiply and causes infection. The immune system protects you from the disease by fighting off the germs.
Rheumatology is a subspecialty in internal medicine and pediatrics that deals with the joints, soft tissues, autoimmune diseases and heritable connective tissue disorders. A rheumatologist specializes in the diagnosis, treatment and therapy of the rheumatic diseases.
Immunopathology is a branch of medicine that deals with immune responses associated with disease. It includes the study of the pathology of an organism, organ system, or disease with respect to the immune system, immunity, and immune responses.
Immunotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of foreign substances and their effects on the immune system.
Inflammatory diseases include a vast array of disorders and conditions that are characterized by inflammation. Examples include allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, coeliac disease, glomerulonephritis, hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, preperfusion injury and transplant rejection.
Allergy occur when your immune system reacts to a foreign substance — such as pollen, bee venom or pet dander — or a food that doesn't cause a reaction in most people. The Immune system produces substances known as antibodies to fight it.
Vaccine is a preparation that is used to stimulate the body's immune response against diseases. Vaccines are usually administered through needle injections, but some can be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.
Cytokines are small and membrane-bound protein-based cell signaling molecules that aid cell-to-cell communication in immune responses and stimulate the movement of cells towards sites of inflammation, infection, and trauma.
Hematopoiesis is the production of all of the cellular components of blood and blood plasma. It occurs within the hematopoietic system, which includes organs and tissues such as the bone marrow, liver, and spleen.
Antigen processing and presentation is the process by which protein antigen is ingested by an antigen-presenting cell (APC), partially digested into peptide fragments and then displayed on the surface of the APC associated with an antigen-presenting molecule such as MHC class I or MHC class II, for recognition.
T cells are a part of the immune system that focuses on specific foreign particles. Rather than generically attack any antigens, T cells circulate until they encounter their specific antigen. As such, T cells play a critical part in immunity to foreign substances.
B cells create a type of protein called an antibody. These antibodies bind to pathogens or to foreign substances, such as toxins, to neutralize them. For example, an antibody can bind to a virus, which prevents it from entering a normal cell and causing infection.
Arising innovation are widening our mastery of the human invulnerable machine, but profiting by their product will most likely require philosophical and reasonable acclimations to the way studies is finished. In Immunotechnology, specialists are locked in inside side the improvement of logical and biotechnological bundles of the resistant machine's cells and particles. Antibodies are a fundamental acknowledgment of consideration.