Neurology is the major branch in medical science that deals with the disorder and illnesses in the nervous system. The term neurology originates from a blend of two words - "neuron" which means nerve and "logia" signifying "the study of". The brain consists of nearly 100 billion neurons, which can generate the impulses on their own and can receive, transmit impulses from adjoining cells. Neurology consists the study of: The peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous system and central nervous system. The functional and structural disorders which ranges from birth defects through to degenerative diseases likely Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease.
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex and disabling illness.
People with ME/CFS are generally unable to do their usual work/activities. At times, ME/CFS may confine them to bed. People with ME/CFS have overwhelming fatigue which is not improved by rest. ME/CFS may get worse after any activity, whether it’s physical or mental. This symptom is known as post-exertional malaise (PEM). Other symptoms can also include problems with thinking, sleep, concentrating, pain, and dizziness. People with ME/CFS may not look ill However,
Depression is a condition of low inclination and repugnance for action. It might be a typical response to happening life occasions or conditions, a manifestation of a therapeutic condition, a reaction of medications or medicinal medicines, or a side effect of certain mental disorders, for example, the mindset issue significant depressive issue and dysthymia.Depression seems to be more common among women than men.Symptoms include lack of joy and reduced interest in things that used to bring a person happiness.The causes of depression are not fully understood but are likely to be a complex combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychosocial factors.Life events, such as bereavement, produce mood changes that can usually be distinguished from the features of depression.
These disorders are known to affect the nerves that control the voluntary muscles. Among all one of the causes is the genetic and immune system disorders. More than a million people in the United States are affected by some form of neuromuscular diseases, near about 40 percent of them are under age18.Diagnosis includes a multi-step process like muscle biopsy, biochemical, genetic test NCV test etc. The goal of this session is to understand the origin of spine muscular atropies, Lambert-Eaton syndrome and other neuromuscular junction condition. Moreover there will be an interactive conversation on Spasticy, Muscular dystrophy, Hyper reflexia and its prevention. In addition the findings in the field of neuromuscular medicine.
Stroke Rehabilitation and Recovery Stroke is known to be the one of the main leading causes of long term adult disability which is affecting approximately 995,000 people each year in the USA. Someone who suffered a stroke can improve functions and sometimes remarkable recoveries by early recovery and rehabilitation. Neuro-rehabilitation is a complex medical process that aims for aid recovery from a nervous system injury. Neurological rehabilitation program is aimed to create awareness about the neurological disorders and its diagnosis. Neurologist, phyciatrist, rehabilitation nurse and therapist provide special guidance and care to stroke affected patients.The goal of a stroke rehabilitation program is to help you relearn skills which are lost when stroke affected part of brain. Stroke rehabilitation can help to regain independence and improve the quality of life. 14) Alzheimers Disease Alzheimer's disease contains high levels of certain proteins inside and outside the brain cells that make it hard for brain cells to stay healthy and to communicate with each other. The brain region which is called the hippo campus is the center of learning and memory in the brain, and the brain cells in this region are generally the first to be damaged. That's why memory loss is often one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease . While most changes in the brain that cause dementia are permanent and worsen over time, thinking and memory problems caused by various conditions Brain changes that occur in Alzheimer's disease can affect moods and behaviors. Problems may include the following:
Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with diverse clinical characteristics that preclude a singular mechanism a neurological disorder marked by sudden recurrent episodes of seizures due to disturbances in electrical signalling and its transmission in the brain. Epilepsy neurological disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures of unusual behavior, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness.The fact that multiple mechanisms exist is not surprising given the varied ways the normal nervous system controls this balance. Understanding seizures in the brain of an individual with epilepsy is more difficult due to seizures are typically superimposed on an altered nervous system.
Neuropharmacology is the examination of how drugs influence cellular function in the neural system and the nervous system through which they influence behavior.Molecular neuropharmacology involves the study of neurons and their neurochemical communication with the overall goal of developing drugs which have beneficial effects on neurological functions. There are two branches of neuro-pharmacology that are behavioral and molecular. Behavioral mainly focuses on the study of how drugs that affects human behavior including the study of how drug dependence and addiction affect the human brain.
Genes affect the wiring and workings of the brain, that is the authority of all our rides. It is solely the genes that give rise to a specific type of protein which may be beneficial or harmful that reflects the need of research in this particular field. Near about 4 percent of the approximately 4 million babies born each year have a genetic disease. Over fifteen thousand Americans are diagnosed to have Huntington’s diseas.Keeping the same in view the different sub tracks are designed in order to enlighten the thoughts related to Huntington's disease and related genetic disorder to overcome neurological problems, These genes are a link between the brain and neurological disorders, defect of gene and diseases. The studies on genome wide association and disease examination, sequencing of gene is used as a tool in determining the abnormal gene loci, neuronal migration defect and Mutation of gene.
Huntington’s disease is inherited from Parents and often symptoms will be more like Parkinson’s disease which include problem with mood, mental abilities, Swallowing, Speaking, Sleep Disturbances followed by loss of co-ordination and unsteady gait. Mutation to gene called HTT(Huntingtin) may cause disturbances in the brain and results in death of brain cell and leads to Huntington’s disease. Abnormalities with the mutant huntingtin include Cardiac Failure, Weight Loss, Osteoporosis, reduced glucose level. This condition is normally observed in the individuals under the age of fifties. The normal huntingtin gene includes 17 to 20 repetitions of this code among total of more than 3,100 codes.The defect that causes Huntington's disease includes 40 or more repeats. Genetic tests for Huntington's disease measure the number of repeats present in an individual's huntingtin protein gene.The huntingtin gene defect involves extra repeats of one specific chemical code in one small section of chromosome 4.
Computational Neuroscience is the field in which mathematical tools and theories are used to investigate brain function. It focuses on the description of biologically plausible neurons (and neural systems) and their physiology and dynamics, and it is therefore not concerned with biologically unrealistic disciplines such as connectionism, artificial neural networks,machine learning, artificial intelligence and computational learning theory concept. It can also incorporate diverse approaches from electrical engineering and computer science in order to understand how the nervous system processes information. 20)Spine and Spinal Disorders Spine disorders occurs in individuals irrespective of their age , in infants it cause spina bifida and spinal stenosis in the elderly. The main Causes of spinal cord disorders include mainly injuries, blocked blood supply, infections,and compression by a fractured bone or a tumor. Spinal disease refers to a condition of impairing the backbone or spinal cord. These may include various diseases of the back or spine known as ("dorso-"), such as kyphosis. The boost in spinal disorders has been met with a leap in advancements in the diagnostic techniques. Endoscopic spine, MRI, X- rays CT and DEA are some of the generally used tools in diagnosing spinal disorders.
Neuroradiology plays an Integral role in the Diagnosis and characterization of various Neurological disorders. It involves different types of Imaging Studies including Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Plain Radiography and Ultrasound are used in limited basis in particularly in Pediatric Population.
The Central Nervous System is denounced to various Malevolent disorders. Central Nervous System covers its mechanism, Metastatic pestilence,, Neurological Disorders, Neurons and Sensory, Receptors Ramification, Cancers, Imaging agents and Multiple scelosis to CNS neurofibroma. Cancer spreads to the Nervous System by Compression or direct invasion from continuous tissues relates to the proximity of the Nervous System to other structures. Global Central Nervous System Drugs market to grow at a CAGR of -3.2% over the period 2011-2015. The global central nervous system (CNS) therapeutics peddle has been forecast to reach US$133 billion by the year 2018, which increases in disease ubiquity rates due to increase in population, introduction of new drugs, and increased outgo on healthcare.
Parkinson's disease is an age-related degenerative disorder of certain brain cells and brain tissues. It mainly affects movements of the body,including dementia, may also occur. It is not considered a hereditary disease, although a genetic link has been identified in a small number of families. Depression,personality, anxiety, and behavioral changes, sleep disturbances, and sexual problems are commonly associated with This disease. In many cases, Parkinson's disease does not affect any person's ability to think, reason, learn, or remember which is called as cognitive processes. According to one Study based in France, found in 2015 that men are 50 percent more likely to develop Parkinson's disease than women overall, but the risk for women appears to increase with age. In most people, symptoms appear at the age of 60 years or over. However in 5–10 percent of cases they appear earlier. When Parkinson's disease develops before the age of 50 years, this is called "early onset" Parkinson's disease.
Neuroimmunology a branch of immunology which deals with the inter-relationships among the nervous system and immune responses and autoimmune disorders. It generally deals with particularly fundamental and applied neurobiology, neurology,neuropharmacology and psychology, neuropathology, neuroendocrinology,neurochemistry, neurovirology, ,neuromuscular research, , which involve either immunologic methodology (e.g. immunocytochemistry) or fundamental immunology (e.g. antibody and lymphocyte assays).
Pediatric Neurology happens mostly in youngsters or teenagers. Neurology influences around 6 in 100,000 youngsters. Neurology in kids is of three essential sorts in whom two are ischemic neurology in which blockage of veins outcome in absence of blood stream and harm. At somepoint when a corridor is blocked, the term blood vessel ischemic neurology as known as (AIS) is utilized. At the point when a vein is block, the term utilized is cerebral Sino venous thrombosis (CSVT). In the 3rd shape, hemorrhagic neurology (HS), the vein crack as opposed to being blocked. The most known signs and side effects of neurology incorporate the sudden appearance of failing or deadliness of the face, arm or leg, more often than not on one side of the body.
CNS Disorders is a broad category of conditions in which the brain does not properly function, limiting health and organs functionality. CNS disorders can affect either the brain or the spinal cord which results in psychiatric disorders or neurological disorders.T he causes of CNS diseases are stroke, brain trauma, autoimmune disorders, infections, structural defects, degeneration and tumors. So here we focus on mood disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia and autism. Meningitis is a relatively rare infection that affects the delicate membranes called meninges that cover the brain and spinal cord. Encephalitis is the inflammation of the brain which is caused by infection or allergic reactions. Neurological diseases are the disorders of the spine, brain and the nerves that connect them. There are abundant evidence that identify neurological disorders as one of the biggest threats to public health. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous systems, like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, brain tumors, epilepsy and stroke as well as less familiar ones such as temporal dementia and an estimated 6.8 million people die every year as a result of the above disorders thus making it necessary to investigate the unresolved Neurological Disorder
Vascular dementia is dementia caused by the problems in the supply of blood to the brain, mainly a series of minor strokes, leading to worsening cognitive decline that occurs step by step. The term refers to a syndrome that consists of a complex interaction between cerebrovascular diseases and risk factors that lead to changes in the brain structures because of strokes and lesions, and resulting changes in cognition. The temporary relationship between a stroke and cognitive deficits is required to make the diagnosis the people with vascular dementia present with progressive cognitive impairment, acutely or sub acutely as in mild cognitive impairment, frequently step-wise, after multiple cerebrovascular events (strokes)A rapidly deteriorating condition may lead to death from a stroke, heart disease, or infection.Signs and symptoms are cognitive, motor, behavioral, and for a significant proportion of patients also affective. These changes typically occur over a period of 5–10 years. 9) Neuro Genetics Genes affect the wiring and workings of the brain, that is the authority of all our rides. It is solely the genes that give rise to a specific type of protein which may be beneficial or harmful that reflects the need of research in this particular field. There are six thousand and more emerging genetic disorders account for a significant portion of human disease. Near about 4 percent of the approximately 4 million babies born each year have a genetic disease. Over fifteen thousand Americans are diagnosed to have Huntington’s diseas.Keeping the same in view the different sub tracks are designed in order to enlighten the thoughts related to Huntington's disease and related genetic disorder to overcome neurological problems, These genes are a link between the brain and neurological disorders, defect of gene and diseases. The studies on genome wide association and disease examination, sequencing of gene is used as a tool in determining the abnormal gene loci, neuronal migration defect and Mutation of gene.
Brain tumor is the collection of abnormal cells in your brain. All types of brain tumors produce symptoms that differ depending on the part of the brain involved. These symptoms may include headaches, seizures, problems with vision, vomiting and mental changes When benign or malignant tumors grow, they can cause the pressure inside your skull to increase. The growth inside such a restricted space can leads to problems. Brain tumors can be malignant or noncancerous (benign)This can cause brain damage, and it can be life-threatening. Brain tumors are divided into primary or secondary. A primary brain tumor originates in your brain. Many primary brain tumors are benign. A secondary brain tumor, which is known as a metastatic brain tumor, occurs when cancer cells spreads into your brain from another organ of the body.
Neurosurgery involves most neurosurgical conditions including neuro-emergenicesand neuro-trauma such as intracranial hemorrhage. It is a medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis , prevention and treatment of patients with injury or diseases/disorders of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves inner all parts of the body. Specialized branches have developed to cater to special and difficult conditions and they co-exist with general neurosurgery in more sophisticated hospitals. Neurosurgeon they are not only brain surgeons, but they can medically trained neurosurgical specialists who can also help patients suffering from back and neck pain as well as other illnesses ranging from trigeminal neuralgia to head injury and Parkinson's disease.
Drug addiction is a brain disease that is categorized by compulsive drug seeking, despite of its harmful consequences. It causes changes in the normal activity of the nervous system damaging the nerve tissues, killing neurons and it leads to deregulation of neural system. Thus uncontrolled drug use results in toxicity of brain. Some of the behavioral effects of drug addiction include Paranoia, Aggressiveness, Impulsiveness, and Loss of Self-Control. Prescription drugs that are frequently abused are sleep medicines and opioids. In reality, drug addiction is a multifaceted disease, and quitting usually takes more than good intentions or a strong will. Drugs change the brain in ways that make quitting hard, even for those who want to. Luckily, researchers know more than ever about how drugs affect the brain and have found actions that can help people recover from drug addiction and lead productive lives.