Public health is coined as "the technique of preventing malady, extending life and supporting human health through organized efforts and educated sections of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals". Examining the health of a population and the threats it faces is the basis for public health. Public health targets to improve the quality of life through stopping and treatment of disease, including mental health. As a whole, public health is concerned with protecting the health of entire populations. These populations are often as little as a local neighborhood, or as huge as a whole country or region of the world.

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Related Associations:    Society for Public Health Education, International Epidemiological Association, Australasian Epidemiological Association, Society for Public Health Education, Royal Society for Public Health, French Society of Public Health, China Health Policy & Management Society, American Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

Epidemiology is a key facet of public health practice. The area aims to supply the interference of disorders and to market the health of individuals. The fundamental regions of skilled medical specialty embrace medical specialty analysis of public health records, health affairs of state and trend analyses, public health police work and health code impact analysis. Public health consists of many fields of sciences and skills.

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Related Associations: London Association of Directors of Public Health, Association of Directors of Public Health, Association for Young People's Health, Canadian Mental Health Association, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ontario Public Health Association, New Mexico Public Health Association, United States-Mexico Border Public Health Association

The links between economic process and health are advanced and economic process may be a multifarious development that may have an effect on health in myriad ways. Instead, we focus on those risks to health and health care that are related to central aspects of the globalization process, namely trade, travel and exchange of information. The health impacts of economic process are at the same time positive and negative, varied in keeping with factors like geographical location, sex, age, ethnic origin, education level, and socioeconomic standing.

  • Financial globalization
  • Economic globalization
  • Political globalization
  • Technological globalization
  • Health Economics
  • Health Statistics

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Related Associations: Clean Air Action Group / Levegö Munkacsoport Országos, Environment and Health Fund (EHF), Portuguese Society of Environmental Health, HASUDER – Association of Public Health Specialists, North of England EU Health Partnership, G5 Health Association, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration

Clinical epidemiology has its application within the resolution of treatment and management of diseases, contributing the identification of risk factors to sure sicknesses and being to this point the elemental part of substantial medicine, and for that it becomes important the teaching of clinical epidemiology, for it will aid in the education of professionals with judicious capacity and rational use of the best alternatives in diagnostic and treatment, by means of a critical evaluation of the literature, as well as helping to stimulate the training of researchers, because it’s implied that the execution of the clinical epidemiology will lead to the development of research.

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Related Associations: Brazilian Society of Health Informatics, The International Association of National Public Health Institutes, Argentina - Pan American Health Organization, Argentine Medical Association, World Federation for Mental Health, Polish Association of Public Health, The Polish Association of Hospital Directors

Community health refers to a significant field of study inside the medical and clinical sciences that focuses on the upkeep, protection, and improvement of the health standing of population teams and communities. It is a definite field of study which will be educated inside a separate faculty of public health or environmental health. Medical interventions that occur in communities may be classified as 3 categories: primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care. Each class focuses on a special level and approach towards the community or population cluster.

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Related Associations: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Fondation EURACTIV, The European Association of Health Law, Canadian Public Health association, Association Internationale de la Mutualité (AIM), Health & Environment Alliance, European Academy for Environmental Medicine (EUROPAEM), European Child Safety Alliance (ECSA)

Public health nursing is the practice of protecting and encouraging the health using data from nursing, social, and public health sciences. It is a systematic process by which the health and health care necessities of a population are assessed in order to identify subpopulations, families and individuals who would benefit from health promotion or WHO is in danger of sickness, injury, disability or premature death. A public health nurse’s role is to market health and prevent health problem. It focuses on teaching at-risk individuals and groups how to maintain healthy lifestyles and prevent illness by avoiding unsafe behavior or exposure.
The health of populations depends on many alternative factors. Epidemiology is a discipline that features a crucial role in describing health standing, characteristic risk factors, and analyzing relationships between health and totally different risky agents. Epidemiology not only measures the relationships between hosts and agents in bound settings however conjointly the health standing of the population living therein environment analyses. However, to boost the health status of the population, the information made by epidemiology has to be used and translated into interventions. Epidemiology features a long tradition and has created a wealth of accumulated expertise to assess micro-environments and specific agents that will impact health.

Public health offers with all factors of health and safety and mainly focus on primary prevention of hazards. A wide variety of work hazards produce risks to safety and health of individuals at work. In the US, the United States Department of Labor contains all the information about non-fatal and fatalities at work place.

  • Community Health & Preventive Medicine
  • Environmental Health
  • Health Physics
  • Health Services Administration
  • International Health
  • Maternal & Child Health
  • Medical Scientist
  • Occupational Health & Industrial Hygiene
  • Public Health Education
  • Public Health Medicine & Treatment
Public Health medicine is regarding rising and protecting the health of the population, instead of treating individual patients. Public Health medicine reaches on the far side the standard boundaries of the health care system. The biggest distinction between public health and medication is that public health deals with health from the angle of populations, whereas drugs deals with health from the angle of people. In medicine, the patient is the individual person. In public health, the patient is the entire body.
Epidemiological case studies are based on historical events and include epidemiologic methods being practiced at the time. Aside the historical nature of this content, the ways that are documented on this website are also noncurrent practices in some settings. As a number of the practices are still used, they continue to offer educational value. These case studies are interactive exercises developed to show epidemiological principles and practices. They are based on real-life outbreaks and public health issues and were developed together with the first investigators and consultants from the Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC).
The contagious disease epidemiology includes local and global work on infections that are rising and recurring, detection of diseases, vaccines development and different intrusion methods, role of pathogens in non-communicable diseases (like cardiovascular diseases and cancer), clinical trials, and disease surveillance. Infectious diseases continue to have a enormous effect at the health of groups round the arena from the worldwide tuberculosis and HIV epidemics, to the threat of resistant bacteria, to the mission of rising and new recognized pathogens. All impel the want for new methods to discover such pathogens, to identify their pathogenesis, and to come up with powerful interventions for their prevention and management.
The major role of educational and community-based programs is improvement of health, interference of diseases and injuries, improvement of quality of life and interference of incapacity and premature death. Educational and community-based programs and techniques performed a vital function in accomplishing Healthy individuals 2010 goals. Over the subsequent several years, they're going to maintain to create contributions to the development of health effects among the United States. Educational and community-based programs support and improve fitness and health by teaching communities on topics like use of tobacco, unplanned maternity, habit, prohibition of injury and violence, mental and activity health, chronic diseases, oral health, nutrition and intervention of obesity issues.
Public Health Communication is a dynamic process in which sources and receivers of information continuously interchange their roles. One of the central beliefs of health communication involves the necessity to conduct thorough formative inspection, audience wants evaluation and message appeal does the direct outcome of this understand. Health communication has much to celebrate and donate. The field is gaining recognition partially due to its stress on combining theory and observes in understanding communication processes and dynamic human behavior.
  • Health promotion is the method of sanctioning people to extend management over, and to enhance, their health. To reach a state of complete physical mental and social upbeat, a private or cluster should be able to determine and to comprehend aspirations, to satisfy desires, and to change or cope with the environment. Health is, therefore, seen as a resource for lifestyle, not the target of living. Health is a positive thought accenting social and private resources, moreover as physical capacities.
  • Behavior
  • Certified Health Education Specialist
  • Certified in Public Health
  • Code of Ethics
  • Community Related Problems
  • Health Behavior
  • Health Education
  • Health Literacy
  • Health Promotion

Health policy refers to choices, plans, and actions that are undertaken to realize specific health care goals among a society. An explicit health policy can do many things: it defines a vision for the long run that successively helps to ascertain targets and points of reference for the short and medium term. It outlines priorities and also the expected roles of various groups; and it builds agreement and informs individuals.

  • Health Research & Education
  • History of Medicine and Science
  • Healthcare Communications

The conception of public health management offers a unifying focus. It centers on the mobilization of society's resources, including those of the health service sector, to improve the health of populations through whatever means is most appropriate.

Public psychology refers to the skilled observe of school, counseling, and psychotherapy with some of the foremost seriously unstable, indigent, and marginalized people in society. Health psychology is the study of psychological and activity processes in health, illness, and health care. It is involved with understanding however psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute to physical health and health problem. Psychological factors can affect health directly. Behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. Health psychologists take a bio psychosocial approach. In alternative words, health psychologists perceive health to be the merchandise not solely of biological processes (e.g., a virus, tumor, etc.) however additionally of psychological (e.g., thoughts and beliefs), behavioral (e.g., habits), and social processes (e.g., socioeconomic status and ethnicity).

  • Understanding behavioral and contextual factors
  • Preventing illness
  • Effects of disease
  • Critical analysis of health policy
  • Conducting research
  • Teaching & Communication

Studies over the last decade have incontestable the effectiveness of public health interventions supported social and behavioral science theory for several health issues. Little is understood concerning the extent to that health department’s area unit presently utilizing these theories.

  • Social medicine
  • Medicine Sociology
  • Sociology in Health & Illness
The determinants that influence maternal health additionally have an effect on physiological condition outcomes baby and kid health. Racial and ethnic disparities exist in infant death rate and can be partially attributed to disparities in social determinants of health. Deaths happen in low-pay settings afterward of condition that has cardiovascular disease, infection, high pressure and complications during delivery. Maternal health is closely connected to infant survival.

Health Nutrition focuses on the promotion of fine health through nutrition and also the primary hindrance of nutrition connected health problem within the population. The aim of these operating as public health nutritionists is for everybody to attain greater health and well-being by creating healthier food and nutrition-related decisions.

  • • Growth & Development
  • Gut Micro biota
  • Malnutrition
  • Low Birth Weight
  • Nutrition, Obesity & Diabetes
  • Nutrition, Health & Wellness
  • Nutrition & Disease Management

Public health is the science of protecting and rising the health of individuals and their communities. This work is achieved by encouraging healthy lifestyles, investigating disease and injury prevention, and discovering, preventing and responding to infectious diseases.

  • CRE
  • Ebola
  • Zika
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Tuberculosis
  • West Nile Virus
  • Rabies
  • Shigellosis

Environmental health is the branch of public health involved with all aspects of the natural and engineered atmosphere touching human health. Environmental health is concentrated on the natural and designed environments for the benefit of human health. The major sub disciplines of environmental health are: environmental science; environmental and activity medication, pharmacology and medicine.

  • Asthma
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
  • Indoor Air Quality
  • Pesticides Health & Safety
  • Air Quality & Health

The core of public health ethics issues the ethical justification of policies, programs, and also the law to shield and promote public health. Because public health encompasses broad social programs and public policies, such as the provision of clean fluoridated water and bans on public smoking, questions regarding the justification of paternalistic interventions, honest distribution of health, and responsibility for health are distinguished. Discrete patient care interventions (e.g., vaccinations) conjointly contribute to public health, and tough moral queries will arise for health care practitioners.

  • • Resource Allocation & Priority Setting
  • Disease Prevention & Control
  • Chronic Disease Prevention & Health Promotion
  • Environmental & Occupational Public Health
  • Vulnerability and Marginalized Populations
  • International Collaboration for Global Public Health
  • Public Health Research

If Public Health is the science and art of how society conjointly aims to boost health, and cut back inequalities in health, then Public Health social science is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimize opportunity cost. A systematic review of revealed steering for the economic analysis of public health interventions among this broad public policy paradigm was conducted.

  • Economic Burden of Healthcare
  • Health Care Price Competition
  • Provision and Financing of Medical Care
  • Demand and Supply chain of Health services
  • Health Insurance and Reimbursement issues
  • Health Economic Evaluations

A balanced diet is important for good health and food provides energy, protein, essential fats, vitamins and minerals for a body to live, grow and perform properly. Diet and nutrition play a crucial role in major causes of death, health problem and disability like coronary cardiovascular disease, stroke, high blood pressure, coronary-artery disease, obesity, cancer, osteoporosis, decay and gall bladder malady. It explains the interaction of nutrients and different food substances with respect to maintenance of an organism, growth and health diseases.

  • Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
  • Micronutrient deficiencies

Genetic epidemiology deals with the study of the role of genetic factors in deciding health and malady in families and even in populations and a great deal of such genetic factors with environmental factors. Genetic epidemiology tries to derive a statistical and perceptble survey of how genetics work in large groups.

  • Biomarker
  • Genotype

Dental health touches each side of our lives however is commonly taken without any consideration. It will show signs of nutritional deficiencies or general infection. Systemic diseases, those that affect the whole body, might initial become apparent thanks to mouth lesions or different oral issues. Great dental or oral care is crucial to managing solid teeth, gums and tongue. A solid mouth empowers sustenance of the human body, moreover as enhances social association and advances dignity and sentiments of prosperity.

  • Image acquisition: 3d radiographic imaging
  • 3D Digital Image analysis
  • Oral Hygiene
The field of health human resources deals with problems like organizing, expansion, presentation, management, retention, info and inspection on human resources for the health care sector. In recent years, raising consciousness of the critical role of HRH in building up health system performance and improving population health consequences has placed the health employees high on the global health agenda. Many government health departments, educational establishments and connected agencies have established analysis programs to spot and quantify the scope and nature of HHR issues resulting in health policy in building an innovative and property health services manpower in their jurisdiction.
Cardiovascular Epidemiology encourages the research alliance of cardiovascular disease. By 2005, the complete amount of cardiovascular illness deaths had increased globally to 17.5 million from 14.4 million in 1990. Of those, 7.6 million were attributed to coronary heart illness and 5.7 million to stroke. By 2030, researcher’s mission that non-communicable diseases can account for over 3-quarters of deaths all over the planet. Thus, CVD is nowadays the largest contributor to worldwide mortality and will continue to dominate mortality traits in the destiny.
The epidemiology of cancer is the study of the factors moving cancer, as the way to infer potential trends and causes. The study of cancer epidemiology uses epidemiologic ways to search out the reason behind cancer and to spot and develop improved treatments. The most significant risk factor is age.
Vaccine is suspension of exhausted, dead or shattered microorganisms or toxins or of antibodies or lymphocytes that is dispensed firstly to prevent disease. Vaccine safety gets a lot of public attention than vaccination effectiveness, however freelance consultants and WHO have shown that vaccines are way safer than therapeutic medicines. Putative vaccine issues of safety are normally reported whereas reviews of vaccine advantages are few. Today, vaccines have a wonderful safety record and most “vaccine scares” are shown to be false alarms.
The WHO defines veterinary public health as, “The sum of all contributions to the absolute physical, mental and social well-being of humans through a grasp and application of veterinary medical science”. Veterinary public health collides on human health by lowering exposure to hazards arising from animals, animal product, and their surroundings.